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. "5 Implications of the New Foundations for Assessment Design." Knowing What Students Know: The Science and Design of Educational Assessment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2001.
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Combinations of answers are more consistent with a knowledge-in-pieces perspective than with a theoretical perspective.
Frequency Count (Students)
NOTE: 0 indicates no answer, *indicates answer consistent with a Newtonian perspective, and $ indicates answer consistent with a novice perspective.
SOURCE: Adapted from Minstrell (1992). Used with permission of the author.