It should be noted that exploring validity in the ways suggested here could also enhance the quality of informal assessments used in the classroom, such as classroom questioning, and the kinds of assignments teachers give students in class and as homework. The formulation of tasks for class work calls for similar reflection on the cognitive basis and functions of the assignments. The next example describes the design of the QUASAR assessment, which included efforts to collect evidence of the cognitive validity of the assessment tasks. This example also illustrates several of the other features of design proposed in this chapter, such as the central role of a model of learning and the highly recursive nature of the design process, which continually refers back to the model of learning.

Example: QUASAR Cognitive Assessment Instrument

QUASAR is an instructional program developed by Silver and colleagues to improve mathematics instruction for middle school students in economically disadvantaged communities (Silver, Smith, and Nelson, 1995; Silver and Stein, 1996). To evaluate the impact of this program, which emphasizes the abilities to solve problems, reason, and communicate mathematically, assessments were needed that would tap the complex cognitive processes targeted by instruction. In response to this need, the QUASAR Cognitive Assessment Instrument was developed (Lane, 1993; Silver and Lane, 1993).

Assessment design began with the development of a model of learning. Using the Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics (National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 1989), augmented with findings from cognitive research, the assessment developers specified a number of cognitive processes important to competent performance in the domain: understanding and representing problems; discerning mathematical relations; organizing information; using and discovering strategies, heuristics, and procedures; formulating conjectures; evaluating the reasonableness of answers; generalizing results; justifying an answer or procedures; and communicating. These processes were defined more specifically in each of the content categories covered by the assessment: number and operations; estimation; patterns; algebra, geometry, and measurement; and data analysis, probability, and statistics. Specifications of the targeted content and processes served as the basis for developing preliminary tasks and scoring rubrics that would provide evidence of those processes.

Preliminary tasks were judged by a team of internal reviewers familiar with the QUASAR goals and the curricular and instructional approaches being used across different school sites. After internal review involving much group discussion, tasks were revised and pilot tested with samples of students. In addition to collecting students’ written responses to the tasks, some students were interviewed individually. A student was asked to “think aloud”



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