information can most easily be combined to meet the chief officer’s purpose. For the teacher, the starting point is knowing what each student as an individual has had the opportunity to learn. The classroom quiz is designed to reveal patterns of individual knowledge (compared with the state grade-level standards) within the small content domain in which students have been working so the teacher can make tailored decisions about next steps for individual students or the class. For the teacher, combining information across classes that are studying and testing different content is not important or possible. Ironically, the questions that are of most use to the state officer are of the least use to the teacher.

National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP): Estimates for Groups Versus Individual Students

The current public debate over whether to provide student-level reports from NAEP highlights a trade-off that goes to the very heart of the assessment and has shaped its sometimes frustratingly complex design from its inception (see Forsyth, Hambleton, Linn, Mislevy, and Yen, 1996 for a history of NAEP design trade-offs). NAEP was designed to survey the knowledge of students across the nation with respect to a broad range of content and skills, and to report the relationships between that knowledge and a large number of educational and demographic background variables. The design selected by the founders of NAEP (including Ralph Tyler and John Tukey) to achieve this purpose was multiple-matrix sampling. Not all students in the country are sampled. A strategically selected sample can support the targeted inferences about groups of students with virtually the same precision as the very familiar approach of testing every student, but for a fraction of the cost. Moreover, not all students are administered all items. NAEP can use hundreds of tasks of many kinds to gather information about competencies in student populations without requiring any student to spend more than a class period performing those tasks; it does so by assembling the items into many overlapping short forms and giving each sampled student a single form.

Schools can obtain useful feedback on the quality of their curriculum, but NAEP’s benefits are traded off against several limitations. Measurement at the level of individual students is poor, and individuals can not be ranked, compared, or diagnosed. Further analyses of the data are problematic. But a design that served any of these purposes well (for instance, by testing every student, by testing each student intensively, or by administering every student parallel sets of items to achieve better comparability) would degrade the estimates and increase the costs of the inferences NAEP was created to address.



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