or no opportunity for test takers to manipulate information or record the sequence of moves used in deriving an answer. This limitation in turn restricts the range of performances that can be observed, as well as the types of cognitive processes and knowledge structures about which inferences can be drawn.

Technology is making it possible to assess a much wider range of important cognitive competencies than was previously possible. Computer-enhanced assessments can aid in the assessment of problem-solving skills by presenting complex, realistic, open-ended problems and simultaneously collecting evidence about how people go about solving them. Technology also permits users to analyze the sequences of actions learners take as they work through problems and to match these actions against models of knowledge and performance associated with different levels of expertise.

One example of this use of technology is for the assessment of spatial and design competencies central to the discipline of architecture. To assess these kinds of skills, as well as problem-solving approaches, Katz and colleagues (Katz, Martinez, Sheehan, and Tatsuoka, 1993) developed computerized assessment tasks that require architecture candidates to use a set of tools for arranging or manipulating parts of a diagram. For instance, examinees might be required to lay out the plan for a city block. On the bottom of the screen are icons representing various elements (e.g., library, parking lot, and playground). Explicit constraints are stated in the task. Examinees are also expected to apply implicit constraints, or prior knowledge, that architects are expected to have (e.g., a playground should not be adjacent to a parking lot). The computer program collects data as examinees construct their solutions and also records the time spent on each step, thus providing valuable evidence of the examinee’s solution process, not just the product.

To develop these architecture tasks, the researchers conducted studies of how expert and novice architects approached various design tasks and compared their solution strategies. From this research, they found that experts and novices produced similar solutions, but their processes differed in important ways. Compared with novices, experts tended to have a consistent focus on a few key constraints and engaged in more planning and evaluation with respect to those constraints. The task and performance analyses led the researchers to design the tasks and data collection to provide evidence of those types of differences in solution processes (Katz et al., 1993).

Several technology-enhanced assessments rely on sophisticated modeling and simulation environments to capture complex problem-solving and reasoning skills. An example is the Dental Interactive Simulation Corporation (DISC) assessment for licensing dental hygienists (Mislevy, Steinberg, Breyer, Almond, and Johnson, 1999). A key issue with assessments based on simulations is whether they capture the critical skills required for successful

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