matrix sampling, 13, 307

moderation, 117

potential future role of Bayes nets in, 164–165

in practice, 7–9, 220–259

precision and imprecision in, 42

publicizing its importance in improving learning, 14, 312–313

quality of feedback in, 234–236

and reasoning from evidence, 2–3, 42–43

reporting results of, 212–214

rethinking, 17–35

scientific foundations of, 55–172

static nature of current, 27–28

summative, 38

tasks, 116

using to assist learning, 7–8, 37–38

Assessment design, 173–288

enhancing overall process of, 270–271

funding research into improved, 11–12, 299–301

implications of new foundations for, 6–7, 176–219

inevitability of trade-offs in, 222–223

task-centered versus construct-centered approaches, 194

Assessment instruments.

See also Large-scale assessment

developers of, focusing on cognition, observation, and interpretation, 13, 305–306

task sets and assembly of, 200–202

Assessment systems, 252–257.

See also BEAR

assessment system

balance between classroom and large-

scale assessment, 252–253

Assessment triangle, 19, 44–51, 263–271, 282, 296

cognition, 44–47

cognition-interpretation linkage, 51

cognition-observation linkage, 51, 263– 269

interpretation, 48–49

observation, 47–48

observation-interpretation linkage, 51, 269–270

relationships among the three vertices of, 49, 51

Associationist perspective. See Behaviorist perspective

Australia’s Developmental Assessment program, 190–192

B

Balance-scale problems, solving, 49–50

Balanced assessment systems, 253–257

approximations of, 257

between classroom and large-scale, 252– 253

coherence of, 255–256

comprehensiveness of, 253–255

continuity of, 256–257

Base rate probabilities, 161

of subprocedure profile, 161

Bayes nets, 154–165

mixed-number subtraction, 156–164

potential future role in assessment, 164– 165

Bayes theorem, 155

BEAR. See Berkeley Evaluation and Assessment Research Center

BEAR assessment system, 115–117

sample progress map from, 119

sample scoring guide for, 118

Behaviorist perspective, on knowing and learning, 61–62

Beliefs. See Student beliefs

Berkeley Evaluation and Assessment

Research (BEAR) Center, 115

Blueprints, 116

Brain research

cognition and, 104–109

cognitive architecture and, 68–69

into enriched environments and brain development, 105–107

into hemispheric specialization, 104–105

implications for assessment, 107–109

Bridging research and practice, 294–296

C

CGI. See Cognitively Guided Instruction

Change, models of, 128–134, 165–168

Changing expectations for learning, 21–25

higher standards and high-stakes tests, 23–25

societal, economic, and technological changes, 22–23

Chess experts, meaningful units as encoded by, 74–75

Children

assessing problem-solving rules of, 46–47



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