coming to understand the whole number system , 180–181

naive conceptions of, 83

Piagetian stages of development, 151

strategies for simple addition, 86

Classical test theory (CTT), 120–121

Classification, social context of, 88

Classroom assessment, 8–9, 225–241

balancing with large-scale assessment, 252–253

cognitively based approaches to, 230–233

fairness in, 240–241

learner’s role in, 236–240

new forms of, 12, 301–303

quality of feedback, 234–236

teacher’s role in, 234

transforming, 226–228

Classroom Connect, 267

Classroom formative assessment, 38

facilitating, 272–274

mandates and resources placing increasing emphasis on, 14, 310–312

CLP. See Computer as Learning Partner

Cognition, 65–72

analyzing in existing assessments, 12, 303–304

and brain science, 104–109

developers of assessment instruments focusing on, 13, 305–306

implications for assessment, 71–72

importance of a model of, 6, 178–192, 229–230

as part of the assessment triangle, 44–47

Cognition-observation linkage, 51

complex problem solving, 265–269

concept organization, 265

enhancing, 263–269

theory-based item generation, 263–265

Cognitive architecture, 65–69

and brain research, 68–69

long-term memory, 67–68

working memory, 65–67

Cognitive coherence

among Curriculum, instruction and assessment, 271–283

of balanced assessment, 255–256

Cognitive complexity, of science tasks, 210– 211

Cognitive elements in existing measurement models

enhancement through diagnostics, 137, 142–147

incorporation of, 134–147

progress maps, 136–142

Cognitive models of learning

of arithmetic, 94–95

for assessing children’s problem-solving rules, 46–47

and debugging of computer programs, 95–96

implications for assessment, 96–97

integrating with instruction and assessment, 92–97

and intelligent tutoring, 93

Cognitive perspective, on knowing and learning, 62–63

Cognitive sciences

defined, 20

making advances available to educators, 11, 299

Cognitive structures

adding to measurement models, 147–152

psychometric modeling of, 152–165

Cognitively Guided Instruction (CGI), 95, 234

and assessment, 230–231

Collaboration, recommendation for multidisciplinary, 11

Committee on Learning Research and Educational Practice, 294

Committee on the Foundations of Assessment, 1, 17, 291

Comparable validity, 214

Competencies. See Student competencies

Complex problem solving, 265–269

Complex solution strategies, analysis of, 270

Comprehensiveness, of balanced assessment system, 253–255

Computational modeling and simulation, 99

Computer as Learning Partner (CLP), 278–279

Computer programs, debugging, 95–96

Concept organization, 265

Conceptual frameworks, 271

Conceptual scheme, to guide thinking and discussion, 11

Concurrent verbal protocols, 99

Conditional independence, 114

Conditional inference

methods of, 218

versus unconditional, 215–216

Conditional probabilities, 159

Connecticut Common Core of Learning Assessment Project, 210



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