time; deal with multiple paths or alternative methods of valued performance; model, monitor, and improve judgments on the basis of informed evaluations; and model performance not only at the level of students, but also at the levels of groups, classes, schools, and states.

Nonetheless, many of the newer models and methods are not widely used because they are not easily understood or packaged in accessible ways for those without a strong technical background. Technology offers the possibility of addressing this shortcoming. For instance, building statistical models into technology-based learning environments for use in classrooms enables teachers to employ more complex tasks, capture and replay students’ performances, share exemplars of competent performance, and in the process gain critical information about student competence.

Much hard work remains to focus psychometric model building on the critical features of models of cognition and learning and on observations that reveal meaningful cognitive processes in a particular domain. If anything, the task has become more difficult because an additional step is now required—determining in tandem the inferences that must be drawn, the observations needed, the tasks that will provide them, and the statistical models that will express the necessary patterns most efficiently. Therefore, having a broad array of models available does not mean that the measurement model problem has been solved. The long-standing tradition of leaving scientists, educators, task designers, and psychometricians each to their own realms represents perhaps the most serious barrier to progress.

Implications of the New Foundations for Assessment Design

The design of high-quality classroom and large-scale assessments is a complex process that involves numerous components best characterized as iterative and interdependent, rather than linear and sequential. A design decision made at a later stage can affect one occurring earlier in the process. As a result, assessment developers must often revisit their choices and refine their designs.

One of the main features that distinguishes the committee’s proposed approach to assessment design from current approaches is the central role of a model of cognition and learning, as emphasized above. This model may be fine-grained and very elaborate or more coarsely grained, depending on the purpose of the assessment, but it should always be based on empirical studies of learners in a domain. Ideally, the model will also provide a developmental perspective, showing typical ways in which learners progress toward competence.

Another essential feature of good assessment design is an interpretation model that fits the model of cognition and learning. Just as sophisticated



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