Index

A

Abortion, 41

Abt Associates, Inc. 193, 194, 195

Access restrictions, see Confidentiality and privacy

ACS, see American Community Survey

Administration for Children and Families (ACF), 2, 8, 25, 30, 32, 50, 51–53, 77, 86–87, 96, 97, 150–151, 158

administrative data, 134, 136, 137, 138, 151

overview of ongoing research programs, table, 171, 181–185, 205

program description data, 142–143, 181

Administrative data and studies, 3, 6, 8, 10–11, 28, 42, 43–45, 67, 71, 102, 103–104, 124, 127, 128–138, 147, 149–150, 159–160

see also Caseload size

Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), 43, 129, 136, 150, 174, 179, 188, 189, 202

confidentiality, 139, 140

cost factors, 130, 137–138

cross-area studies, general, 129, 132–133, 134–135, 147

Current Population Survey and, 82

Department of Health and Human Services, 11, 128, 133–134, 135, 136, 153, 159–160

Administration for Children and Families (ACF), 134, 136, 137, 138, 151

Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation (ASPE), 134, 135, 148, 151–152

eligibility, 129, 130, 131, 136

experimental methods and, 71, 129

families and households, 130, 136

fathers, 136–137

historical perspectives, 131, 147

leavers studies, 29, 30, 129, 133, 135, 174, 188, 189, 191–193

local-level effects, 128, 129, 133, 189, 202

outcome measures, general, 40, 41, 63, 138

program participation, 132, 133

reporting requirements, 11, 132, 135–138, 141–142, 159, 160;

see also “standards” infra

sampling, 129, 130, 147

social security numbers (SSNs), 128, 132, 136, 139

standards, 131–133, 135, 136, 137, 147, 151, 159



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 241
Evaluating Welfare Reform in an Era of Transition Index A Abortion, 41 Abt Associates, Inc. 193, 194, 195 Access restrictions, see Confidentiality and privacy ACS, see American Community Survey Administration for Children and Families (ACF), 2, 8, 25, 30, 32, 50, 51–53, 77, 86–87, 96, 97, 150–151, 158 administrative data, 134, 136, 137, 138, 151 overview of ongoing research programs, table, 171, 181–185, 205 program description data, 142–143, 181 Administrative data and studies, 3, 6, 8, 10–11, 28, 42, 43–45, 67, 71, 102, 103–104, 124, 127, 128–138, 147, 149–150, 159–160 see also Caseload size Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), 43, 129, 136, 150, 174, 179, 188, 189, 202 confidentiality, 139, 140 cost factors, 130, 137–138 cross-area studies, general, 129, 132–133, 134–135, 147 Current Population Survey and, 82 Department of Health and Human Services, 11, 128, 133–134, 135, 136, 153, 159–160 Administration for Children and Families (ACF), 134, 136, 137, 138, 151 Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation (ASPE), 134, 135, 148, 151–152 eligibility, 129, 130, 131, 136 experimental methods and, 71, 129 families and households, 130, 136 fathers, 136–137 historical perspectives, 131, 147 leavers studies, 29, 30, 129, 133, 135, 174, 188, 189, 191–193 local-level effects, 128, 129, 133, 189, 202 outcome measures, general, 40, 41, 63, 138 program participation, 132, 133 reporting requirements, 11, 132, 135–138, 141–142, 159, 160; see also “standards” infra sampling, 129, 130, 147 social security numbers (SSNs), 128, 132, 136, 139 standards, 131–133, 135, 136, 137, 147, 151, 159

OCR for page 241
Evaluating Welfare Reform in an Era of Transition Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), 40, 43–45, 128–138, 139, 149–150, 151, 175, 179, 189 time-series analysis, 131, 136 urban areas, 129, 188, 189, 190, 192, 193, 197–204 (passim) various specific studies, 174, 188–206 (passim) Adolescents, 176 data sources, 105(n.1), 106, 108, 228 teenage pregnancy, 39, 41, 174, 176, 177 troubled, 38, 39 AFDC, see Aid for Families with Dependent Children African Americans, see race/ethnicity Age factors, 215 see also Adolescents; Children; Child wll-being; Cohort comparison studies; Teenage pregnancy data sources, 105(n.1), 110, 136, 225, 227 decennial census, 222 Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 158 Aggregation and disaggregation of data, 68–69, 79, 188, 217, 226 caseloads, 32, 93, 129, 136, 211, 215 difference-in-difference methods, 68 program participation, 93 time-series analysis, 58, 65 Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), 1, 14, 16–18, 20, 22, 24, 37, 45, 46, 47, 55, 66, 95, 96, 106, 108, 113, 209–219 see also Temporary Assistance for Needy Families administrative practices and data, 43, 129, 136, 150, 174, 179, 188, 189, 202 program participation, 17, 79, 80, 81, 90, 91, 92, 94, 184 various specific studies, 174, 179, 182, 188, 189, 194, 202, 229, 231 Alcohol and drug abuse, 4, 34, 38, 39, 136, 142, 175, 182 American Community Survey (ACS), 16, 82, 104, 105, 106–107, 110, 111, 113, 117, 118, 120–122, 222–224 American Indians, 181, 183, 190 American Public Human Services Association, 143, 206 Assessing the New Federalism Initiative, 142 Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation (ASPE), 2, 6, 8, 50, 51–53, 77, 100, 101, 127 administrative data, 134, 135, 148, 151–152 Annual Report to Congress, 52–53, 100, 148 econometric evaluations, 32 experimental studies, 77, 97, 175, 182 funding, general, 25, 34–35, 51, 125, 127–128, 147–148 leaver studies, 28, 29, 30, 51, 94, 99, 125, 127–128, 135, 151 overview of ongoing research programs, 171–180, 182, 183, 184, 185, 190, 205 organizational role, 52, 125, 127–128, 147–148, 150–152 Altitudes, 46–47, 63–64 public opinion, 16, 40 B Benchmarking, 74 Benefit penalties, see Sanctions Block grants, 44 see also Temporary Assistance for Needy Families Bonuses, 41, 135, 151 Bureau of the Census, see Census Bureau Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), 153, 156, 157 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), 29–30, 90, 104, 106–107, 113, 114, 115–116, 118, 176, 232–233 Business cycle, 29, 65, 71, 97 C Canada, 31 Caps, family, 7, 20, 47, 69–70, 142, 211, 213 Case management, 48, 198 qualitative data, 144 Caseload size, 4, 5, 7, 24, 20–22, 31–32, 40, 41, 51, 79, 89, 90–92, 97–98, 136, 142, 151, 176, 205, 209, 210, 211, 214–216 aggregation/disaggregation of data, 32, 93, 129, 136, 211–215 cohort studies, 58–59

OCR for page 241
Evaluating Welfare Reform in an Era of Transition defined, 25 historical trends, 19 Case studies, 177, 179, 197, 230 Census Bureau, 26, 117, 122–123, 152, 153 see also Current Population Survey American Community Survey (ACS), 16, 82, 104, 105, 106–107, 110, 111, 113, 117, 118, 120–122, 222–224 decennial census, 104, 105, 106–107, 221–222, 225, 227–228 Dynamic Employer-Household Data and Social Data Infrastructure Project, 129, 140 health insurance coverage, 105(n.2) Longitudinal Employer-Household Dynamics Pilot Project, 128–129, 140 Survey of Economic Opportunity, 231 Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), 10, 16, 27, 104, 105, 108–115 (passim), 116, 118, 119, 120, 122, 129, 136, 147, 152, 153, 159, 178, 179, 181, 204, 226– 228 Survey of Program Dynamics (SPD), 10, 16, 26, 27, 104, 105, 108–109, 111–112, 114, 115, 116, 118, 119, 122, 127, 129–130, 152, 159, 203, 204 Center for Budget and Policy Priorities, 33, 51, 142 Center for Law and Social Policy, 33, 51, 142, 200 Child care services, 13, 37, 43, 136 specific studies, 175, 177, 181, 183, 205 Children, 35, 37–38, 39, 110, 222, 231 see also Adolescents; Aid for Families with Dependent Children abuse and neglect, 38, 129 benefit limits for additional, 13 child support, including FPLS, 18–19, 31, 34, 40, 128, 132, 133, 142, 151, 196, 200 decennial census, 222 education of, 37, 189, 203 school lunches, 106, 108, 224, 229 Medicaid coverage, 21, 37, 185 Women, Infants, and Children Program (WIC), 108, 129, 181, 229 Child Support Enforcement Program, 128 Child Welfare Panel, 158 Child well-being, 2, 5, 15, 35, 40, 41, 157–158 see also Fathers; Single mothers; Teenage pregnancy data sources, general, 106, 108, 109, 114, 119, 132 state-level studies, general, 35, 50 various studies, 172, 173, 178, 182, 184, 188, 189, 190, 198, 202, 203, 205, 230 waiver programs, 30, 31, 35 welfare leavers, 29 Cohort comparison studies, 29, 32, 65, 70, 72, 73, 158 caseload size, 58–59 leaver studies, 94–95, 99, 173, 174 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), 29–30, 90, 104, 106–107, 113, 114, 115–116, 118, 176, 232–233 qualitative data, 145 specification tests, 74 various specific studies, 180, 191, 193, 194, 197, 198 Community service programs, 156 child care services, 13, 37, 43, 136 specific studies, 175, 177, 181, 183, 205 public housing, 106, 113, 197 transportation assistance, 13, 37, 44, 90, 113, 121, 130, 136 Comparative group methods, 7–8, 32, 55, 57–60, 64, 66–77 (passim), 94, 98, 118, 121, 126, 131, 143 Computer-assisted interviewing (CAPI/CATI), 227, 229, 230, 231 Confidentiality and privacy, 34, 103, 132, 138–141, 202 administrative data, 139, 140 standards, 138, 139, 140 state data, 3, 9, 124, 132, 135, 138–139, 140 Congressional Research Service, 33, 142 Cost and cost-effectiveness, 5, 22, 217 administrative data, 130, 137–138 microsimulation models, 84 randomized experiments, 56, 71–72 state and local surveys, 5, 124 various specific studies on, 182, 189, 194, 196, 198 Council of Economic Advisers (CEA), 79, 80, 81–82, 210, 211–215 CPS, see Current Population Survey

OCR for page 241
Evaluating Welfare Reform in an Era of Transition Cross-area studies, 6, 7, 8, 29, 31, 39, 45, 49, 57–58, 60, 61, 64–65, 69–71, 72, 73, 76, 83, 97, 110, 117, 125, 205, 222–223 administrative data, general, 129, 132–133, 134–135, 147 leaver studies, 94, 135, 179 qualitative and ethnographic data, 145–146 sensitivity tests, 75 specification tests, 74 statistical power, 78–82, 209–219 waiver programs, 78, 79–80, 81, 209–219 Cross-sectional studies, 29, 30(n.3), 68, 71, 73, 78, 82, 120, 231 American Community Survey (ACS), 16, 82, 104, 105, 106–107, 110, 111, 113, 117, 118, 120–122, 222–224 decennial census, 104, 105, 106–107, 221–222, 225, 227–228 National Survey of America’s Families (NSAF), 27, 29–30, 68, 93, 104, 105, 108–109, 111, 113, 123, 176, 204, 229–230 Current Population Survey (CPS), 10, 16, 27, 68, 79, 80, 104, 106–107, 111, 113, 114, 118, 120, 122, 153, 156, 159, 181, 224–226 econometric evaluations, 32, 210–218 sampling, 81–82, 106, 107, 110, 224–225 Cyclic welfare users, 89–91, 173 D Databases, 11, 33, 34, 51, 142, 147–148, 160, 181, 185, 191, 206 see also Internet microsimulation models, viii, 83–84 Data needs, 2, 8–9, 14, 39, 42, 47, 55, 68, 70–71, 73, 102–148, 201–205 see also Aggregation and disaggregation of data; Confidentiality and privacy; Internet; Organizational Factors; Sampling and sample sizes; Standards administrative data, 102, 103–104, 124, 127, 128–138, 147 adolescents, 105(n.1), 106, 108 age factors, general, 105(n.1), 110, 136 child well-being, 106, 108, 109, 114, 119, 132 committee charge, 15 cross-area studies, 129, 132–133, 134–135, 145–146, 147 Department of Health and Human Services, 8–9, 11, 103, 118, 150–160 disabled persons, 110, 142, 155–156 eligibility, 129, 130, 131, 136, 142 immigrants, 110 local-level effects, 11, 105, 106, 117, 122, 123–128, 133, 141, 143, 144 program-level evaluations, 102, 105, 125, 141–144 program participation, 132, 133 state-level data, various, 1, 3, 8, 9–10, 102, 103, 105, 106, 108, 110, 122, 147 devolution and, 3, 9–10, 11, 13, 26, 40, 42, 43, 44, 49, 50, 97, 103–104, 139, 154 statistical power, 54, 78–82, 209–219 Decennial census, 104, 105, 106–107, 221–222, 225, 227–228 Department of Agriculture, 122 see also Food and Nutrition Service; Food stamps Department of Commerce, see Census Bureau; Bureau of Labor Statistics Department of Education, 8–9 National Center for Education Statistics, 157–158 Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), 99–100, 122, 123, 128, 205 see also Administration for Children and Families; Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation administrative data, 11, 128, 133–134, 135, 136, 153, 159–160 Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 158 confidentiality, 139 data collection/analysis, general, 8–9, 11, 103, 118, 150–160 National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), 9, 153, 156, 157, 158 National Institutes of Health, 26 process evaluations, 86, 87 program description data, 142, 143 state program rules, 33, 44 state cooperation, 9–10, 127, 128 technical assistance, 10, 11, 101, 133, 147, 158–159, 160, 178–180, 184–185, 205

OCR for page 241
Evaluating Welfare Reform in an Era of Transition Department of Housing and Urban Development, 122 Department of Justice, 8–9, 153 Department of Labor, 8–9, 26, 30–31, 156 Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), 153, 156, 157 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), 29–30, 90, 104, 106–107, 113, 114, 115–116, 118, 176, 232–233 Department of Transportation, 153 Descriptive studies, 6, 11, 24, 26–28, 42, 49, 141–144 see specific studies Administration for Children and Families (ACF), 142–143, 181 defined, 25 Internet sites, 28, 142, 187 local-level effects, 141, 143, 144, 189, 190, 201 reporting requirements, 141–142 Temporary Assistance for Needy Families, 141–144, 188–191 (passim) time-series analysis, 61 various, 26–28, 172–173, 188–191, 195, 197, 198, 200–201 DHHS, see Department of Health and Human Services Diet, see Nutrition Difference-in-difference methods, 59–60, 66–67, 68, 70, 72–73, 76, 77, 98 Disabled persons, 4, 34, 38, 39, 142, 179, 190 data sources, 110, 142, 155–156 special education, 203 Disaggregation, see Aggregation and disaggregation of data Diversion programs, 4, 29, 38, 39, 44, 51, 94, 99, 125, 127–128, 142, 151, 173–174, 191–193, 199 Domestic violence, 38, 39, 188 Drug abuse, see Alcohol and drug abuse Dynamic Employer-Household Data and Social Data Infrastructure Project, 129, 140 E Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, 158, 180 Earned Income Tax Credits (EITC), 21, 22, 37, 40, 65, 176 Econometric modeling, 7, 24, 31–32, 51, 58, 65–66, 67, 97–98, 99 see also Caseload size defined, 25 waiver programs, 31, 67 Educational attainment, 4, 40, 41 language factors, 34, 175 program participation and, 80, 81, 92–93 teenage mothers, 39 waivers, 81, 211, 215–216 welfare sanctions and, 38 Education and training, 37, 42, 175 see also Department of Education children, 37, 189, 203 school lunches, 106, 108, 224, 229 difference-in-difference methods, 59, 66 professional, survey methodology, 128 randomized experiments, 31 single mothers, 59, 66 Work First Program, 19–20 Work Incentive Program, 18 Eligibility, 2, 15, 29 see also Program participation administrative data, general, 129, 130, 131, 136 AFDC trends, 17 difference-in-difference methods, 59 diversion programs, 4, 29, 38, 39, 44, 51, 94, 99, 125, 127–128, 142, 151, 173–174, 191–193, 199 immigrants, 38–39 matching, 60, 65 Medicaid coverage, 21, 22 microsimulation models, viii, 83–84 program description data, 142 Employment, 4, 40, 71, 113, 117–118, 128–129, 136, 209–219 (passim) see also Current Population Survey; Leaver studies child care services, 13, 37, 43, 136 specific studies, 175, 177, 181, 183, 205 contingent, 27, 172 Current Population Survey, 81, 113 econometric evaluations, 32 Federal Parent Locator Service, 128 financial incentives, 18 parenting and, 177; see also “child care services” supra job placement, 13, 48, 136, 175, 182, 189, 190 retention initiatives, 35 teenage mothers, 177 transition to, 4, 13, 16, 18, 22, 39, 42, 181, 190

OCR for page 241
Evaluating Welfare Reform in an Era of Transition see also Education and training; Sanctions; Work requirements transportation assistance, 13, 37, 44, 90, 113, 121, 130, 136 unemployment insurance, 29, 90, 128, 129, 130, 132, 136, 202 unemployment rates, 21, 32, 95, 132, 157, 158, 173, 210, 225(n.3) various specific studies, 173, 177, 178, 181, 182, 184, 194, 204, 205, 206 welfare stayers, 30 working poor, 37; see also “transition to” supra Employment Retention and Advancement Project, 30 Energy assistance, 113, 156 Error of measurement, 102, 114, 119, 123, 125 Ethnicity, see Race/ethnicity Ethnographic studies, 27, 34, 62, 63, 86, 88–89, 145–146, 147, 191, 198 Experimental methods, 7, 14, 20–31, 56–57, 64, 69, 71–72, 73, 76–77, 95–97, 175, 182, 184, 193–196 administrative data, general, 71, 129 Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation (ASPE), 77, 97, 175, 182 cost factors, 56, 71–72 defined, 25 generalizability, 54, 56, 57, 61, 64, 69, 70, 71–72, 73, 83–86, 97 implementation and process analysis, 61 microsimulation models, viii, 83–86 job training and placement, 175 waiver programs, 19, 30, 31, 51, 182, 183 F Families and households, 3, 4, 5, 14, 26–27, 34, 35, 40–41, 102, 176, 177, 183, 188, 192 see also Aid to Families with Dependent Children; Children; Child well-being; Current Population Survey; Marriage and marital status; National-level studies; Panel Study of Income Dynamics; Qualitative studies; Sampling and sample size; Survey of Income and Program Participation; Temporary Assistance for Needy Families administrative data, 130, 136 caps, 7, 20, 47, 69–70, 142, 211, 213 case management, 48 committee study methodology, 1, 2, 15 domestic violence, 38, 39, 188 qualitative analysis, 62 populations of interest, 4, 38, 39 special needs groups, 38, 39 Family Support Act, 18, 31 Fathers, 176, 177, 183 administrative data, 136–137 child support, 18–19, 31, 34, 40, 128, 132, 133, 142, 151, 185, 196, 200 Federal Parent Locator Service (FPLS), 128, 132, 133, 185 Food, see Nutrition Food and Nutrition Service, 26 Food stamps, 22, 24, 25, 106, 108, 113, 129, 229 specific studies, 179, 185, 188, 202, 203 Foundations, 6, 26, 30, 50, 104, 185 Rockefeller Institute of Government, 33, 51, 86–87, 192, 199, 200 Fragile Families Study, 35, 145, 176 Front-line Management and Practice Study, 86–87 Funding, 10, 25–26, 99–100, 104, 127–128, 143 see also Block grants Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation (ASPE), 25, 34–35, 51, 125, 127–128, 147–148 committee study at hand, vii, 2, 14–15 non-TANF programs, 44 G Generalizability, 54, 56, 57, 61, 64, 69, 70, 71–72, 73, 83–86, 97 microsimulation models, viii, 83–86 H Handicapped persons, see Disabled persons Health insurance, 105(n.2), 108, 172, 202, 225 see also Medicaid State Children’s Health Insurance Program (S-CHIP), 37, 179, 185 universal, 40 Health status and care, 4, 5, 40, 108, 127, 199 see also Disabled persons; Mental health and illness

OCR for page 241
Evaluating Welfare Reform in an Era of Transition Hispanics, 107, 108, 226, 232, 233–234 Historical perspectives, 1, 13, 16–23, 45, 46–47, 97, 99, 149, 209 see also Aid to Families with Dependent Children; Time-series analysis administrative data, 131, 147 ethnographic and qualitative studies, 34 populations of interest, 37 randomized experiments, 30, 56 Homeless persons, 111, 132, 172 Housing, 4, 40 homeless persons, 111, 132, 172 public, 106, 113, 197 subsidies, 108 I Immigrants, 110 ineligible, 38–39 language factors, 34, 175 various specific studies, 173, 180, 204 Implementation studies, 6, 24, 25, 27, 33–34, 42, 61, 64, 67–68, 72, 86, 87–88, 123 see also Process analysis local studies, 51, 54, 197 various specific studies, 175, 184, 189, 193–200 Income, general, 105(n.2), 106, 113 see also Survey of Income and Program Participation Current Population Survey, 81, 225 income tests, 22 as outcome measure, 4, 31, 40, 41, 210, 211, 213, 216, 217, 228 Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), 30, 104, 105, 108–109, 112, 113, 114, 118, 180, 230–232 In-depth interviews, 107, 108, 193, 197, 203, 225, 227, 233 computer-assisted (CAPI/CATI), 227, 229, 230, 231 qualitative studies, 34, 144, 145 welfare leavers, 28 Individuals, characteristics and effects on, 1, 3, 5, 7, 8, 37, 73, 117 see also Confidentiality and privacy; Qualitative studies case studies, 177, 179, 197 committee study methodology, 2, 15 microdata, 78, 118, 128, 135, 137, 153–154 qualitative analysis, 62 time-series analysis, 65 In-kind programs, see Noncash benefits Insurance, see Health insurance; Unemployment insurance Internet American Community Survey (ACS), 224 Current Population Survey (CPS), 226 decennial census, 222 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), 233 National Survey of America’s Families (NSAF), 230 Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), 232 program description data, 28, 142, 187 Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), 228 Survey of Program Dynamics (SPD), 229 Interviews, see In-depth interviews J Job Opportunities and Basic Skills Training program, 18 Job training, see Education and training L Language factors, 34, 175 Leaver studies, 3, 4, 14, 24, 28–30, 32, 37, 38, 39, 51, 67–68, 89–95, 125, 126–127, 149–150, 173–174, 178, 179, 189, 191–193, 206 see also Diversion programs administrative data, 29, 30, 129, 133, 135, 174, 188, 189, 191–193 Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation (ASPE), 28, 29, 30, 51, 94, 99, 125, 127–128, 135, 151 child well-being, 29 cohort comparisons, 94–95, 99, 173, 174 cross-area studies, 94, 135, 179 committee study, methodology, vii, viii, 23 definition of leaver, 25 state-level data, 28, 149–150, 173–174, 178, 179, 191–193 Legislation, 18–19 see also Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act

OCR for page 241
Evaluating Welfare Reform in an Era of Transition Family Support Act, 18, 31 Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act, 18 Social Security Acts, 16, 18 Local-level effects, 20, 47, 50, 71, 103–104, 117, 123–128 see also Housing; Urban areas administrative data, 128, 129, 133, 189, 202 child care services, 13, 37, 43, 136 specific studies, 175, 177, 181, 183, 205 data sources, 11, 105, 106, 117, 122, 123–128, 133, 141, 143, 144 discretionary powers, 44 program description data, 141, 143, 144, 189, 190, 201 transportation assistance, 13, 37, 44, 90, 113, 121, 130, 136 various specific studies, 181, 182, 184, 189, 190, 197, 201, 202 Longitudinal Employer-Household Dynamics Pilot Project, 128–129, 140 Longitudinal studies, 68, 103, 104–123, 158, 172, 188–193 (passim), 203, 204 see also Cohort comparison studies; Panel studies; Time-series analysis decennial census, 104, 105, 106–107, 221–222, 225, 227–228 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), 29–30, 90, 104, 106–107, 113, 114, 115–116, 118, 176, 232–233 Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), 30, 104, 105, 108–109, 112, 113, 114, 118, 180, 230–232 qualitative data, 144 Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), 10, 16, 27, 104, 105, 108–116 (passim), 118, 119, 120, 122, 129, 136, 147, 152, 153, 159, 178, 179, 181, 204, 226–228 Survey of Program Dynamics (SPD), 10, 16, 26, 27, 104, 105, 108–109, 111– 112, 114, 115, 116, 118, 119, 122, 127, 129–130, 152, 159, 203, 204 Long-term welfare users, 89–91 Low-Income Home Energy Assistance Program , 156 M Marriage and marital status, 4, 5, 37–38, 41, 176, 227 see also Single mothers difference-in-difference methods, 59 divorced/separated couples, 16, 41 child support obligations, 18–19 domestic violence, 38, 39, 188 widows, 16 Matching methods, 59–60, 65, 70, 77 Mathematica Policy Research, 181 MAXIMUS, 189–192 (passim) Measurement error, see Error of measurement Medicaid, 21, 22, 24, 25, 33, 37, 65, 103, 129, 142, 158, 179, 188, 203 children, 21, 37, 185 state government, 21, 22, 24, 25, 33, 37, 65, 103, 142 Medical Expenditures Panel Survey, 158 Mental health and illness, 4, 34, 38, 39, 175 alcohol and drug abuse, 4, 34, 38, 39, 136, 142, 175, 182 domestic violence, 38, 39, 188 program description data, 142 troubled adolescents, 38, 39 Microdata, 78, 118, 128, 135, 137, 153–154 Microsimulation models, viii, 83–86 Military personnel, 105(n.1), 232 Minimum work requirements, see Work requirements Minorities, see Race/ethnicity Monitoring, 2, 3, 5, 8–11, 24, 26–28, 36, 42, 49, 93, 116, 118–120, 125–126, 143, 146 see also Data needs administrative data, 130, 133, 147 confidentiality, 141 Current Population Survey, 10, 16, 27, 116 defined, 25 econometric evaluations, 32 Devolution and Urban Change Study, 27 National Survey of America’s Families, 27, 116 qualitative data, 144, 145 Survey of Income and Program Participation, 10, 116 Survey of Program Dynamics, 10, 26, 27, 116 Three-Cities Study, 27–28, 32, 34, 88, 93, 127, 190 Urban Change Study, 27, 32, 35, 51, 87, 88, 93 various specific studies, 183, 188–191, 197, 205 well-being, general, 5, 42–43, 54

OCR for page 241
Evaluating Welfare Reform in an Era of Transition N National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), 9, 153, 156, 157, 158 National Center for Education Statistics, 157–158 National Education Longitudinal Survey, 158 National Evaluation of Welfare-to-Work Strategies, 31 National Governors Association, 143, 201 National Institutes of Health, 26 National-level studies, 3, 8, 10, 27, 29, 49–50, 68, 102, 104–123, 132, 141, 146–148, 152, 154–155 see also Bureau of Census Devolution and Urban Change Study, 27, 93, 127, 172 econometric evaluations, 31 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), 29–30, 90, 104, 106–107, 113, 114, 115–116, 118, 176, 232– 233 National Survey of America’s Families (NSAF), 27, 29–30, 68, 93, 104, 105, 108–109, 111, 113, 123, 176, 204, 229–230 National Survey of Family Growth, 158, 173, 180 Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), 30, 104, 105, 108–109, 112, 113, 114, 118, 180, 230–232 response rates, 107, 109, 110–112, 114, 119, 146–147, 222, 223–224, 225, 227, 231–232 timeliness, 107–109, 112, 115, 119–120, 147, 228 Urban Change Study, 27, 32, 35, 51, 87, 88, 93 various specific studies, 171–185 (passim), 200–206 (passim) National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), 29–30, 90, 104, 106–107, 113, 114, 115–116, 118, 176, 232–233 National Survey of America’s Families (NSAF), 27, 29–30, 68, 93, 104, 105, 108–109, 111, 113, 123, 176, 204, 229–230 National Survey of Family Growth, 158, 173, 180 Native Americans, see American Indians Noncash benefits, 13, 22, 44, 47, 113, 122, 136, 137, 142, 178, 222, 224, 226–227 see also Education and training; Medicaid child care services, 13, 37, 43, 136 specific studies, 175, 177, 181, 183, 205 energy assistance, 113, 156 food banks, 132, 172 food stamps, 22, 24, 25, 106, 108, 113, 129, 229 specific studies, 179, 185, 188, 202, 203 housing subsidies, 108 job placement, 13, 48, 136, 175, 182, 189, 190 public housing, 106, 113, 197 school lunches, 106, 108, 224 transportation assistance, 13, 37, 44, 90, 113, 121, 130, 136 Nutrition, 4, 40 see also Food stamps food banks, 132, 172 school lunches, 106, 108, 224, 229 Women, Infants, and Children Program (WIC), 108, 129, 181, 229 O Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act, 18 Organizational factors, 1, 2, 5–6, 8–11, 52, 100, 103, 149–160 Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, 52, 125, 127–128, 147–148, 150–152 Temporary Assistance for Needy Families, administration, 40, 43–45 Outcome measures, general, 2–7 (passim), 15, 32, 36, 39–41, 46, 52, 58, 61, 65, 69, 73, 76, 88, 89, 93, 178, 203, 209–219 (passim) see also Caseload size; Child well-being; Leaver studies; Nutrition; Tme-series analysis; Well-being administrative data, 40, 41, 63, 138 confidentiality, 138 counterfactual, 54, 55 difference-in-difference methods, 59, 66 P Panel studies see also Current Population Survey

OCR for page 241
Evaluating Welfare Reform in an Era of Transition Child Welfare Panel, 158 Medical Expenditures Panel Survey, 158 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), 29–30, 90, 104, 106–107, 113, 114, 115–116, 118, 176, 232–233 Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), 30, 104, 105, 108–109, 112, 113, 114, 118, 180, 230–232 Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), 10, 16, 27, 104, 105, 108–116 (passim), 118, 119, 120, 122, 129, 136, 147, 152, 153, 159, 178, 179, 181, 204, 226–228 Survey of Program Dynamics (SPD), 10, 16, 26, 27, 104, 105, 108–109, 111–112, 114, 115, 118, 119, 122, 127, 129–130, 152, 159, 203, 204 Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), 30, 104, 105, 108–109, 112, 113, 114, 118, 180, 230–232 Participation, see Program participation Penalties, see Sanctions Personal interviews, see In-depth interviews Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA), 1, 3, 6, 13, 14, 18, 19–20, 22, 24, 28, 29, 42, 43–44, 55, 67, 70, 79–80, 94, 98, 141, 147, 149, 183 see also Survey of Program Dynamics; Time limits; Waiver programs; Work requirements administrative practices and data, 43–45, 135–136, 150, 174 caseload and other econometric models, 31–32 experimental evaluations, 7, 30–31, 73, 95–96, 99 marriage and marital status, 4, 37–38, 41 monitoring data, 8, 27–28, 51, 116–117, 119, 147 nationwide vs state assessments, 49–50 outcome measures, general, 40–41 populations of interest, 4, 37 Survey of Program Dynamics (SPD), 10, 26, 27, 104, 105, 108–109, 111–112, 114, 115, 118, 119, 122, 127, 129–130, 152 Policy evaluation, general, 3, 6, 8, 9, 11, 24, 26, 32, 33, 43–45, 55, 57–60, 102, 178 see also Expert opinion; Implementation studies family structure, 40–41 historical perspectives, 18–23 randomized experiments, 56–57 state variations, 49, 103 see also Cross-area studies working poor, 37 Post-Employment Services Demonstration, 30 Privacy, see Confidentiality and privacy Private sector, 64, 100 see also Foundations Process analysis, 10, 24, 33–34, 61–63, 67–68, 72, 73, 86–88, 144 defined, 25 various specific studies, 175, 184, 189, 193–200 (passim) Program-level evaluations, 8, 11, 15–16, 47–48, 57–58, 59 see also Descriptive studies; Implementation studies data sources, 102, 105, 125, 141–144 randomized experiments, 31, 56, 57 Program participation, 2, 43, 79, 81, 89–90, 110, 118, 123, 146, 153, 184 see also Eligibility; Leaver studies administrative data, 132, 133 AFDC, 17, 79, 80, 81, 90, 91, 92, 94, 184 aggregation/disaggregation of data, 93 Current Population Survey (CPS), 81, 225 cyclic welfare users, 89–91, 173 diversion programs, 4, 29, 38, 39, 44, 51, 94, 99, 125, 127–128, 142, 151, 173–174, 191–193, 199 educational attainment, 80, 81, 92–93 long-term welfare users, 89–91 microsimulation models, viii, 83–86 short-term welfare users, 89–91 stayers, 4, 30, 38, 39, 51, 89–92, 149–150, 193 Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), 10, 16, 27, 104, 105, 108–116 (passim), 118, 119, 120, 122, 129, 136, 147, 152, 153, 159, 178, 179, 181, 204, 226–228 Project on Devolution and Urban Change, 27, 93, 127, 129, 145, 172 PSID, see Panel Study of Income Dynamics Public opinion, 16, 40

OCR for page 241
Evaluating Welfare Reform in an Era of Transition Q Qualitative studies, 8, 24, 33–34, 61–63, 67–68, 73, 86–89, 144–146, 147, 195 cross-area studies, 145–146 data sources, 102 defined, 25 ethnographic studies, 27, 34, 62, 63, 86, 88–89, 145–146, 147, 191, 198 in-depth interviews, 34, 144, 145 Quality of life, see Child well-being; Wll-being, general R Race/ethnicity, 91, 105(n.2), 107, 136, 181, 183, 222, 226, 227, 232 American Indians, 181, 183, 190 black persons, 91, 107, 108, 110, 222, 226, 231, 232 Hispanics, 107, 108, 226, 232, 233–234 RAND, 172, 176, 179, 183, 184, 198, 203 Randomized experiments, see Experimental methods Reporting requirements, 11, 132, 135–138, 159, 160 see also Confidentiality and privacy; Standards program description data, 141–142 Response rate national surveys, 107, 109, 110–112, 114, 119, 146–147, 222, 223–224, 225, 227, 231–232 state and local surveys, 123, 124 Research Forum on Children, Families, and the New Federalism, 28 Rockefeller Institute of Government, 33, 51, 86–87, 192, 199, 200 R.W.Johnson Foundation, 179, 185 Rural areas, 32, 35, 87, 125, 183, 190, 198 Rural Welfare Reform Project, 32 S Sampling and sample size, 71, 96, 103, 110 see also Cross-sectional studies administrative data, general, 129, 130, 147 Current Population Survey, 81, 106, 214 cross-area studies, 72, 78–79, 80–82, 105 decennial census, 221, 222 national-level studies, 3, 27, 68, 105, 106–112 (passim), 115–116, 119, 146, 178, 214, 221, 222, 226, 228–229, 230–231, 232, 233 response rates, national surveys, 107, 109, 110–112, 114, 119, 146–147, 222, 223–224, 225, 227, 231–232 state and local surveys, 123, 124 state and local studies, 103, 123, 124 various surveys, 106, 108, 109, 178, 214, 226, 228–229, 230–231, 232, 233 Sanctions, 7, 13, 18, 19, 38, 41, 46, 47, 48, 71, 96, 134, 142, 151, 156, 192, 211, 213 Self-reports, 129, 184, 228, 229 Sensitivity analysis, 60, 75–76 microsimulation models, 84 Short-term welfare users, 89–91 Single mothers, 4, 5, 13, 16, 18, 35, 37, 41 difference-in-difference methods, 59–60, 66–67 econometric evaluations, 32 education of, 59, 66 SIPP, see Survey of Income and Program Participation Social factors, general, 5, 39–40, 46–47, 56, 202 administrative data, 10 ethnographic studies, 27, 34, 62, 63, 86, 88–89, 145–146, 147, 191, 198 public opinion, 16, 40 Social Security Acts, 16, 18 Social Security Administration, 26, 179 Social security numbers (SSNs), 128, 132, 136, 139 SPD, see Survey of Program Dynamics Special needs groups, 4, 38–39 see also Alcohol and drug abuse; Disabled persons; Mental health and illness Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children, see Women, Infants, and Children Program Specification testing, 74–75 Spousal abuse, see Domestic violence SSI, see Supplemental security income Standards, 10, 113, 119, 143, 154, 159 see also Outcome measures administrative data, 131–133, 135, 136, 137, 147, 151, 159 confidentiality, 138, 139, 140

OCR for page 241
Evaluating Welfare Reform in an Era of Transition process evaluations, 87–88 qualitative data, 147 State\Capacity Study, 33, 86–87 State Children’s Health Insurance Program(SCHIP), 37, 179, 185 State government, 6, 13, 19–20, 26, 29, 33, 47, 48, 97, 100–101, 172–179 see also Administrative data and studies; Block grants; Caseload size; Implementation studies; Technical assistance; Temporary Assistance for Needy Families; Waiver programs; Work requirements bonuses from federal government, 41, 135, 151 confidentiality policies, 3, 9, 124, 132, 135, 138–139, 140 cost of surveys by, 5, 124 data sources, 1, 3, 8, 9–10, 11, 102, 103, 122, 123–128, 139, 141–144, 147; see also Administrative data and studies devolution, 3, 9–10, 11, 13, 26, 40, 42, 43, 44, 49, 50, 97, 103–104, 122, 127, 139, 154 Department of Health and Human Services, cooperation with, general, 9–10, 127, 128 rules, general, 33, 44 see also “technical assistance” infra flexibility and control over programs, general, 4, 13, 43 Medicaid, 21, 22, 24, 25, 33, 37, 65, 103, 142 nonmarital childbearing, 41 non-TANF environment, 6, 11, 44, 49 policy evaluation, state variations, 49, 103 program description data, 141–144 reporting requirements, 11, 132, 135–138, 141–142, 159, 160; see also Standards; technical assistance, 10, 11, 101, 133, 147, 158–159, 160, 178–180, 184–185, 205 time-limit policies, 3, 7, 13, 19, 47, 48, 71, 96, 142, 211, 213 State-level data, various, 6, 27, 43, 58, 149–150, 172–179 see also Administrative data and studies; Cross-area studies; Current Population Survey child well-being studies, general, 35, 50 confidentiality, 3, 9, 124, 132, 135, 138–139, 140 data sources, 1, 3, 8, 9–10, 102, 103, 105, 106, 108, 110, 122, 147, 149–150, 154, 172–185 econometric evaluations, 31, 32 interstate migration due to benefits, 44 leaver studies, 28, 149–150, 173–174, 178, 179, 191–193 nationwide vs state assessments, 49–50 randomized experiments, 30 sample sizes, 103, 123, 124 various specific studies, 171–185, 188–206 (passim) welfare leavers, 28, 149–150, 173–174, 178, 179, 191–193 State Policy Document Project, 143 Statistical power, 54 cross-state comparisons, 78–82, 209–219 Stayers, 4, 30, 38, 39, 51, 89–92, 149–150, 193 Substance abuse, see Alcohol and drug abuse Supplemental security income, 22, 106, 108, 113, 229 Survey of Economic Opportunity, 231 Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), 10, 16, 27, 104, 105, 108–116 (passim), 116, 118, 119, 120, 122, 129, 136, 147, 152, 153, 159, 178, 179, 181, 204, 226–228 Survey of Program Dynamics (SPD), 10, 16, 26, 27, 104, 105, 108–109, 111–112, 114, 115, 116, 118, 119, 122, 127, 129–130, 152, 159, 203, 204 T TANF, see Temporary Assistance for Needy Families Taxation, 64, 189 administrative data, 130 Earned Income Tax Credits (EITC), 21, 22, 37, 40, 65, 176 Technical assistance, 10, 11, 101, 133, 147, 158–159, 160, 178–180, 184–185, 205 Teenage pregnancy, 39, 41, 174, 176, 177 Telephone interviews, 27, 28, 108, 124, 127, 180, 191, 202, 227, 230, 231, 233

OCR for page 241
Evaluating Welfare Reform in an Era of Transition Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), 1, 3, 4, 9–10, 11, 13, 19–20, 22, 24, 26, 29, 33, 87–88, 147 administrative data, 40, 43–45, 128–138, 139, 149–150, 151, 175, 179, 189 administrative organization, 40, 43–45 American Indians, 181 confidentiality, 139 difference-in-difference methods, 59, 66 monitoring studies, 28, 43, 123, 127, 188– 191 program description data, 141–144, 188–191 (passim) outcome measures, general, 40, 173 populations of interest, 4, 37, 39 substance abusers, 175, 182 various specific studies, 175, 177, 181, 184, 188–193 (passim), 199, 201, 203 Three-City Study, 27–28, 32, 34, 88, 93. 127, 190 econometric evaluations, 32 Time limits, 3, 7, 13, 19, 47, 48, 71, 96, 142, 211, 213 Time-series analysis, 7–8, 58, 61, 64, 65–66, 67, 68, 70, 72, 74, 76, 95, 98, 121 see also Cohort comparison studies administrative data, 131, 136 aggregation/disaggregation of data, 58, 65 Training, see Education and training Transportation assistance, 13, 37, 44, 90, 113, 121, 130, 136 U Unemployment insurance, 29, 90, 128, 129, 130, 132, 136, 202 Unemployment rates, 21, 32, 95, 132, 157, 158, 173, 210, 225(n.3), 210 Urban areas, 27–28, 33, 35, 87, 126, 127, 225 administrative data, 129, 188, 189, 190, 192, 193, 197–204 (passim) econometric evaluations, 32 qualitative evaluations, 34 various specific studies, 172, 173, 182, 188, 189, 190, 192, 193, 197–204 (passim) Urban Change Project, see Project on Devolution and Urban Change Urban Change Study, 27, 35, 51, 87, 88, 93 econometric evaluations, 32 Urban Institute, 33, 51, 68, 128, 176, 196, 200, 201, 204 Assessing the New Federalism Initiative, 142 National Survey of America’s Families (NSAF), 27, 29–30, 68, 93, 104, 105, 108–109, 111, 113, 123, 176, 204, 229–230 W Waiver programs, 13, 19, 36, 48 child well-being, 30, 31, 35 cross-area comparisons, 78, 79–80, 81, 209–219 econometric evaluations, 31, 67 educational attainment, 81, 211, 215–216 experimental studies, 19, 30, 31, 51, 182, 183 Welfare Information Network, 33, 134 Welfare leavers, see Leaver studies Welfare Rules Database, 33 Welfare stayers, see Stayers Welfare-to-Work Program, 31, 173, 181, 188 Well-being, general, 4, 5, 6, 42–43, 49, 50, 54, 110, 112, 113–114, 119, 154, 173, 176, 177, 188 see also Child well-being; Income, general; Nutrition econometric evaluations, 31 housing, 4, 40, 106, 108, 111, 113, 132, 172, 197 Women, Infants, and Children Program (WIC), 108, 129, 181, 229 Work First Program, 19–20 Work Incentive Program, 18 Work requirements, 3, 4, 7, 13, 16, 18, 19–20, 31, 48, 90, 96, 142, 151, 213 sanctions, 7, 13, 18, 19, 38, 41, 46, 47, 48, 71, 96, 134, 142, 151, 156, 192, 211, 213 various specific programs, 31, 173, 175, 181, 184, 188, 190, 191, 201 Welfare-to-Work Program, 31, 173, 181, 188 World Wide Web, see Internet