families. Family case management includes a variety of monitoring and intervention activities to assist families who are in need of services. Drug-involved families may be encouraged to seek treatment, and conditions that might facilitate relapse are addressed.

Classroom instruction. This is the most common strategy used in schools. The content of these interventions varies, but they can be grouped into three main classes: Information-only interventions teach students factual information about drugs and the consequences of use. Skill-building interventions increase students’ awareness of social influences to engage in misbehavior and expand their repertoires for recognizing and appropriately responding to risky or potentially harmful situations. Normative education interventions change perceptions of the norms related to substance use. Many instructional programs contain different mixes of these three types. Two well-known examples are the Drug Abuse Resistance Education (D.A.R.E.) program and Life Skills Training. The most effective of these instructional programs use what are called cognitive-behavioral or behavioral instructional methods, which rely on modeling, providing rehearsal, and coaching in the display of new skills (Gottfredson, 2001).

Cognitive behavioral, behavioral modeling, and behavior modification strategies. Behavior modification strategies focus directly on changing behaviors. They involve timely tracking of specific behaviors over time and behavioral goals, using feedback and positive or negative reinforcement to change behavior. These strategies rely on reinforcers external to the student to shape behavior; an example of their use is the Good Behavior Game (Dolan et al., 1993; Kellam et al., 1994; Kellam and Anthony, 1998). Larger or more robust effects on behavior are obtained by teaching students to modify their own behavior using a range of cognitive strategies. Efforts to teach students cognitive-behavioral strategies involve modeling or demonstrating behaviors and providing rehearsal and coaching in the display of new skills. Students are taught, for example, to recognize the physiological cues experienced in risky situations. They rehearse this skill and practice stopping rather than acting impulsively in such situations. Students are taught and rehearsed in such skills as suggesting alternative activities when friends propose engaging in a risky activity. And they are taught to use prompts or cues to remember to engage in behavior. Lochman’s (1992) Anger Coping Training is an example of this type of preventive intervention.

Other counseling, social work, psychological, and therapeutic strategies. Family prevention and cognitive-behavioral approaches often involve counseling specifically targeted at certain behaviors or cognitions. Prevention can also consist of more generic individual counseling, case man-



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