agement, or similar group-based interventions other than those described above. Student assistance and peer counseling programs, popular in many schools, are included in this category.

Mentoring, tutoring, and work study strategies. These efforts primar-ily aim to increase the stakes in conformity and reduce individuals’ predispositions to use drugs. Mentoring is distinguished from counseling because it is generally provided by a lay person rather than a trained counselor and is not necessarily guided by a structured approach. Tutoring includes individualized assistance with academic tasks.

Recreational, community service, enrichment, and leisure activities. These are activities intended to provide constructive and fun alternatives to drug use. Drop-in recreation centers, after-school and weekend programs, dances, community service activities, and other events are offered in these programs as alternatives to more dangerous activities. The popular Mid-night Basketball is included in this category.

School and discipline management. This category includes interventions to change the decision-making processes or authority structures to enhance the general capacity of the school. These activities parallel those described under community organizing above, but they are contained within a school building or a school system. These interventions often involve teams of staff and (sometimes) parents, students, and community members engaged in planning and carrying out activities to improve the school. They often diagnose school problems, formulate school goals and objectives, design potential solutions, monitor progress, and evaluate their efforts. Activities aimed at enhancing the administrative capability of the school by increasing communication and cooperation among members of the school community are also included. Examples include Project PATHE (Gottfredson, 1986) and Comer’s School Development Process (Comer, 1985; Cook et al., 1998). Often these interventions also include efforts to establish or clarify school rules or discipline codes and mechanisms for the enforcement of school rules—strategies discussed in more detail in Chapter 6.

Establishment of norms and expectations for behavior. These activities include school-wide or community-wide efforts to redefine norms for behavior and signal appropriate behavior. Activities include newsletters, posters, ceremonies during which students declare their intention to remain drug-free, and displaying symbols of appropriate behavior. Some well-known interventions in this category are Red Ribbon Week, sponsored through the Department of Education’s Safe and Drug-Free Schools and Communities program.

Classroom and instructional management. Aside from teaching specific content intended to reduce the probability that students will use drugs, teachers can also use instructional methods designed to increase student

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