TABLE 7.1 Mean Effect Size on Substance Use by Program Category

 

Effect Size

Program Category

Meana

Minimum

Maximum

Nb

Environmentally focused interventions

 

School and discipline management

0.24*

0.15

0.33

2

Interventions to establish norms or expectations for behavior

0.09

–0.23

0.31

12

Classroom or instructional management

0.17*

0.03

0.25

5

Individually focused interventions

 

Classroom instruction

 

Skill-building instruction using cognitive-behavioral or behavioral instructional methods

0.05*

–0.44

0.37

30

Skill-building instruction without cognitive-behavioral or behavioral instructional methods

0.03

–0.22

0.29

25

D.A.R.E.

0.03

–0.22

0.25

12

Other instructional programs

0.07

–0.26

0.54

5

Cognitive behavioral, behavioral modeling, or behavior modification

0.23

–0.21

0.44

3

Other counseling, social work, and therapeutic

–0.19

–0.39

0.00

2

Mentoring, tutoring, and work study

–0.11

–0.21

0.00

2

All environmentally focused interventions

0.13*

–0.23

0.40

20

All individually focused interventions

0.03*

–0.44

0.54

68

Note: See text for program category descriptions. Substance use outcomes include alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drugs. Most effects are measured immediately after the completion of the prevention activity, although some are measured months or years later. Source: Gottfredson et al. (forthcoming).

*p<=.05.

aInverse variance weighted mean effect size (random effects model).

bNumber of effect sizes contributing to the analysis.

tude of instructional and other individually focused interventions, which are more often studied and used in schools. Clearly, more research is needed to test the effectiveness of the noninstructional modalities and to understand why so much variability in the magnitude of effects is observed across studies. As discussed in a later section, research is also needed to test the effectiveness of different combinations of modalities.

The need for research on different prevention modalities is particularly crucial with extremely costly and high profile prevention activities.



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