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Informing America’s Policy on Illegal Drugs: What We Don’t Know Keeps Hurting Us Appendix F Biographical Sketches Charles F.Manski (Chair) has been Board of Trustees Professor in Economics and Fellow of the Institute of Policy Research at Northwestern University since 1997. Formerly he was a member of the faculty at the University of Wisconsin-Madison (1983–1998), the Hebrew University of Jerusalem (1979–1983), and Carnegie Mellon University (1973–1980). Manski’s research spans econometrics, judgment and decision, and the analysis of social policy. He is the author of Identification Problems in the Social Sciences (1995) and Analog Estimation Methods in Econometrics (1988), coauthor of College Choice in America (1983), and coeditor of Evaluating Welfare and Training Programs (1992) and Structural Analysis of Discrete Data with Econometric Applications (1981). Manski has been editor of the Journal of Human Resources, coeditor of the Econometric Society Monograph Series, and associate editor of the Journal of Economic Perspectives, Econometrica, the Journal of the American Statistical Association, and Transportation Science. He has served as Director of the Institute for Research on Poverty (1988–1991) and as chair of the board of overseers of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (1994–1998). At the National Research Council, he has been a member of the Committee on National Statistics, the Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, the Committee on the Federal Role in Education Research, the Committee on Research on Law Enforcement and the Administration of Justice, and the Panel on Research on Criminal Careers. Manski is an elected fellow of the Econometric Society, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the American Asso-
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Informing America’s Policy on Illegal Drugs: What We Don’t Know Keeps Hurting Us elation for the Advancement of Science. He has B.S. and Ph.D. degrees in economics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. James Anthony is professor at Johns Hopkins University, where he received a faculty appointment in 1978. His professorial appointments are in the Departments of Mental Hygiene and Epidemiology in the School of Hygiene and Public Health and in the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences in the School of Medicine. He also is director of the university’s Drug Dependence Epidemiology Training Program and co-director of its Psychiatric Epidemiology Training Program. He is an elected member and fellow of the American Psychopathological Association and a member of both the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology and the College on Problems of Drug Dependence. He is also a member of the Society for Epidemiologic Research, the American Public Health Association, the Society for Prevention Research, and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He has M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees from the Graduate Schools of the University of Minnesota. Alfred Blumstein is the J.Erik Jonsson professor of urban systems and operations research and former dean at the H.John Heinz III School of Public Policy and Management of Carnegie Mellon University. He is also the director of the National Consortium on Violence Research, supported by a five-year, $12 million grant from the National Science Foundation. He has had extensive experience in both research and policy with the criminal justice system, serving on the President’s Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice in 1966–1967 as director of its Task Form on Science and Technology. At the National Research Council he was a member of the Committee on Research on Law Enforcement and the Administration of Justice (now the Committee on Law and Justice) from its founding in 1975 until 1986 and was a member of the Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. In 1998 he was elected a member of the National Academy of Engineering. His degrees from Cornell University include a Bachelor of Engineering and a Ph.D. in operations research. Richard J.Bonnie is John S.Battle professor of law at the University of Virginia School of Law and Director of the university’s Institute of Law, Psychiatry and Public Policy. He writes and teaches in the fields of criminal law and procedure, mental health law, bioethics, and public health law. His books include Criminal Law, Marijuana Use and Criminal Sanctions and The Marijuana Conviction: A History of Marijuana Prohibition in the United States. He has served as associate director of the National Commission on Marihuana and Drug Abuse, special assistant to the attorney
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Informing America’s Policy on Illegal Drugs: What We Don’t Know Keeps Hurting Us general of the United States, secretary of the National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse, chair of Virginia’s State Human Rights Committee responsible for protecting rights of persons with mental disabilities, and a member of the U.S. State Department delegation charged with investigating psychiatric abuse of human rights in the Soviet Union. He also served on the advisory board for the American Bar Association’s Criminal Justice-Mental Health Standards Project and as a member of the John D. and Catherine T.MacArthur Foundation Research Network on Mental Health and the Law. In 1991, he was elected to the Institute of Medicine (IOM) and has been an active participant in the National Academies’ work. He currently serves on the IOM Board on Neuroscience and Behavioral Health, the Committee to Assess the Science Base for Tobacco Harm Reduction, and the Committee to Assess the System for Protection of Human Research Subjects. He has previously chaired IOM studies on injury prevention and control and opportunities in drug abuse research and was a member of the IOM Committee on Preventing Nicotine Dependence in Children and Youths. Jeanette Covington is associate professor in the Department of Sociology at Rutgers University in New Brunswick, New Jersey. Her research and publications have focused on the social ecology of crime, neighborhood change and crime, and fear of crime. She currently serves on the Committee on Law and Justice at the National Research Council. She has also written and conducted research on the causes of drug use, the links between drug use and crime, and an examination of current drug policies. She is currently considering how criminologists construct the variable of race when analyzing data on both crime and drugs. She has B.A., M.A., and Ph.D. degrees from the University of Chicago. Kathleen Frydl (Research Associate) is a staff officer with the Committee on Law and Justice of the Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education at the National Research Council. She holds a Ph.D. in history from the University of Chicago and a B.A. in history and political science from the University of California at Davis. Denise C.Gottfredson is professor in the Department of Criminal Justice and Criminology at the University of Maryland. Her research interests include delinquency and delinquency prevention, particularly the effects of school environments on youth behavior. After completing graduate school, she worked at the Johns Hopkins University as a researcher on a long-term national evaluation of the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention’s Alternative Education Initiative. She also coauthored a book on school environmental factors related to school disorder and
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Informing America’s Policy on Illegal Drugs: What We Don’t Know Keeps Hurting Us directed several evaluations of violence prevention efforts. She has a Ph.D. in social relations from the Johns Hopkins University, where she specialized in sociology of education. Darnell F.Hawkins (Committee on Law and Justice liaison) is professor of African American studies, sociology, and criminal justice at the University of Illinois at Chicago. He has also held faculty positions at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, and was a visiting scientist at the Centers for Disease Control, Division of Injury Control. His research interests focus primarily on race and crime, homicide among black Americans, and survey research methodology. His numerous publications include Ethnicity Race and Crime: Perspectives Across Time and Place (1995), “Race, Social Class, and Newspaper Coverage of Homicide” (with John Johnstone and Arthur Michener), and “Legal and Historical Views on Racial Biases in Prisons” (with Lee E.Ross). He is coeditor for a special issue of The Journal of Preventive Medicine, Evaluation of Youth Violence Projects, and serves on the editorial boards of Crime and Justice: A Review of Research, Law and Society Review, and Criminology, among others. He served as a senior consultant to the National Research Council’s Committee on the Status of Black Americans and was a member of its Committee on the Assessment of Family Violence Interventions. He has a J.D. degree from the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, Law School and a Ph.D. in sociology from the University of Michigan. Philip Heymann is the James Barr Ames professor at Harvard Law School, director of the Center for Criminal Justice, and professor at the John F.Kennedy School of Government, where he directed the Program for Senior Managers in Government. He has served as assistant attorney general in charge of the Criminal Division of the U.S. Department of Justice, associate Watergate special prosecutor, and, during the 1960s, held the following posts in the U.S. Department of State: executive assistant to the undersecretary of state, deputy assistant secretary of state for international organizations, and head of the bureau of security and consular affairs. As director of the Center for Criminal Justice at Harvard, Heymann has in recent years managed a number of projects designed to improve the criminal justice systems of countries seeking to create or preserve democratic institutions, including Guatemala, Colombia, South Africa, and Russia. Joel L.Horowitz is the Henry B.Tippie research professor of economics at the University of Iowa. His main focus is theoretical and applied econometrics, and his areas of expertise are econometric theory, semiparametric estimation, bootstrap methods, discrete choice analysis, and analysis of
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Informing America’s Policy on Illegal Drugs: What We Don’t Know Keeps Hurting Us housing markets. His current projects are semiparametric estimation of additive models with unknown links, bootstrap methods for nonsmooth models, and bandwidth selection in semiparametric estimation. He received a B.S. in physics from Stanford University in 1962 and a Ph.D. from Cornell University in 1967. Robert J.MacCoun is professor of public policy at the Goldman School of Public Policy and Boalt Hall School of Law at the University of California, Berkeley. Trained as a social psychologist, from 1986 to 1993 he was a behavioral scientist at RAND, a nonprofit, nonpartisan private research institution. He has collaborated with economist Peter Reuter on studies of street-level drug dealing in Washington, D.C., comparative research on European and American drug policies, and analyses of the effects of drug laws on drug use and drug-related harms. Their work has appeared in Science, Psychological Bulletin, the Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, the Journal of Quantitative Criminology, and in various book chapters and RAND publications. MacCoun has also conducted numerous studies of jury decision making and civil litigation, with articles in Science, Psychological Review, Law & Society Review, and other journals and edited books. Recently, MacCoun has written on bias in the interpretation of research results and on the likely effects of sexual orientation on military cohesion. In 1996, he was selected as distinguished wellness lecturer by the California Wellness Foundation and the University of California. Mark Harrison Moore is the Guggenheim Professor of Criminal Justice Policy and Management at the John F.Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University. He was the founding chairman of the Kennedy School’s Committee on Executive Programs and served in the role for over a decade. He is also the faculty chairman of the school’s Program in Criminal Justice Policy and Management, as well as acting director of the Hauser Center for Nonprofit Institutions. His research interests are public management and leadership, criminal justice policy and management, and the intersection of the two. In the area of public management, his most recent book is Creating Public Value: Strategic Management in Government. He has written (with others) Public Duties: The Moral Obligations of Public Officials; Ethics in Government: The Moral Challenges of Public Leadership; Inspectors-General: Junkyard Dogs or Man’s Best Friend; Accounting for Change: Reconciling the Demands for Accountability and Innovation in the Public Sector. In the area of criminal justice policy, he has written Buy and Bust: The Effective Regulation of an Illicit Market in Heroin; and Dangerous Offenders: Elusive Targets of Justice. In the intersection of public management and criminal justice, he has written (with others) From Children to
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Informing America’s Policy on Illegal Drugs: What We Don’t Know Keeps Hurting Us Citizens: The Mandate for Juvenile Justice and Beyond 911: A New Era for Policing. William Nordhaus is the A.Whitney Griswold Professor of Economics at Yale University and on the staff of the Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics. He has been a member of the Yale faculty and the staff of the Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics since 1967. He has engaged in economic research on a wide range of problems. His early work centered on productivity, inflation, and economic growth, including “Is Growth Obsolete?” His 1982 study was one of the first that pointed to the slowdown in American productivity growth. His studies include a book, Reforming Federal Regulation, that examines a “regulatory budget” and other proposals for regulatory reform. Since then, his work has focused primarily on problems of long-run economic growth, energy, natural resources, and the environment. Charles O’Brien is the chief of psychiatry at the VA Medical Center and professor and vice chair of the Psychiatry Treatment Research Center at the University of Pennsylvania. His research interests are the neurophysiological bases of addictive disorders and their treatment and other mental disorders, particularly from the biological perspective. He was elected as a member of the Institute of Medicine in 1991. Carol Petrie (Study Director) is director of the Committee on Law and Justice, a standing committee within the Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education at the National Research Council. She also served as the director of planning and management at the National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice, responsible for policy and administration. In 1994, she served as the acting director of the National Institute of Justice. She has conducted research on violence and public policy, and managed numerous research projects on the development of criminal behavior, domestic violence, child abuse and neglect, and improving the operations of the criminal justice system. Robert Porter is the William R.Kenan, Jr., Professor of Economics at Northwestern University and a research associate of the National Bureau of Economic Research. Previously he held positions at the University of Minnesota and the State University of New York, Stony Brook, and he has been a visiting professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the University of Chicago. At Northwestern, he teaches graduate courses in industrial organization and undergraduate courses in econometrics and game theory. He has conducted research on a variety of topics in industrial organization, including theoretical and empirical studies of col-
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Informing America’s Policy on Illegal Drugs: What We Don’t Know Keeps Hurting Us lusion, price wars, and bidders’ behavior in auctions. His recent research includes studies of the federal auctions of offshore oil and gas leases and of procurement auctions for highway construction and for school milk, where he has investigated firms’ bidding strategies, the formation of bidding consortia and joint ventures, and statistical methods for detecting the presence of a bid rigging scheme. He received an honors B.A. from the University of Western Ontario in 1976 and a Ph.D. in economics from Princeton University in 1981. Paul R.Rosenbaum is professor of statistics at the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania. His research interests include the design and analysis of observational studies, that is, nonexperimental studies of treatment or program effectiveness; psychometrics, particularly latent variable models for item responses; health services research, with particular reference to health care outcomes; and quality design, particularly the design of dispersion experiments. He is the author of the 1995 book, Observational Studies, in the Springer Series in Statistics, as well as numerous articles. He is an elected fellow of the American Statistical Association and a member of the National Research Council’s Committee on National Statistics. He received a Ph.D. in statistics from Harvard University in 1980. James Q.Wilson, from 1961 to 1986, was a professor of government at Harvard, and from 1986 to 1997 he was the James Collins professor of management at the University of California, Los Angeles. He is now professor emeritus from the Anderson Graduate School of Management. He is the author or coauthor of 14 books, including Moral Judgment, The Moral Sense, Thinking About Crime, Varieties of Police Behavior, Crime and Human Nature (with Richard J.Hernnstein), Bureaucracy, and On Character. In addition, he has edited or contributed to books on urban problems, government regulation of business, and the prevention of delinquency among children, including Crime and Public Policy, From Children to Citizens: Families, Schools, and Delinquency Prevention (with Glenn Loury), Understanding and Controlling Crime (with David Farrington and Lloyd Ohlin), and Drugs and Crime (with Michael Tonry).
Representative terms from entire chapter: