general of the United States, secretary of the National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse, chair of Virginia’s State Human Rights Committee responsible for protecting rights of persons with mental disabilities, and a member of the U.S. State Department delegation charged with investigating psychiatric abuse of human rights in the Soviet Union. He also served on the advisory board for the American Bar Association’s Criminal Justice-Mental Health Standards Project and as a member of the John D. and Catherine T.MacArthur Foundation Research Network on Mental Health and the Law. In 1991, he was elected to the Institute of Medicine (IOM) and has been an active participant in the National Academies’ work. He currently serves on the IOM Board on Neuroscience and Behavioral Health, the Committee to Assess the Science Base for Tobacco Harm Reduction, and the Committee to Assess the System for Protection of Human Research Subjects. He has previously chaired IOM studies on injury prevention and control and opportunities in drug abuse research and was a member of the IOM Committee on Preventing Nicotine Dependence in Children and Youths.

Jeanette Covington is associate professor in the Department of Sociology at Rutgers University in New Brunswick, New Jersey. Her research and publications have focused on the social ecology of crime, neighborhood change and crime, and fear of crime. She currently serves on the Committee on Law and Justice at the National Research Council. She has also written and conducted research on the causes of drug use, the links between drug use and crime, and an examination of current drug policies. She is currently considering how criminologists construct the variable of race when analyzing data on both crime and drugs. She has B.A., M.A., and Ph.D. degrees from the University of Chicago.

Kathleen Frydl (Research Associate) is a staff officer with the Committee on Law and Justice of the Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education at the National Research Council. She holds a Ph.D. in history from the University of Chicago and a B.A. in history and political science from the University of California at Davis.

Denise C.Gottfredson is professor in the Department of Criminal Justice and Criminology at the University of Maryland. Her research interests include delinquency and delinquency prevention, particularly the effects of school environments on youth behavior. After completing graduate school, she worked at the Johns Hopkins University as a researcher on a long-term national evaluation of the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention’s Alternative Education Initiative. She also coauthored a book on school environmental factors related to school disorder and



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