Citizens: The Mandate for Juvenile Justice and Beyond 911: A New Era for Policing.

William Nordhaus is the A.Whitney Griswold Professor of Economics at Yale University and on the staff of the Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics. He has been a member of the Yale faculty and the staff of the Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics since 1967. He has engaged in economic research on a wide range of problems. His early work centered on productivity, inflation, and economic growth, including “Is Growth Obsolete?” His 1982 study was one of the first that pointed to the slowdown in American productivity growth. His studies include a book, Reforming Federal Regulation, that examines a “regulatory budget” and other proposals for regulatory reform. Since then, his work has focused primarily on problems of long-run economic growth, energy, natural resources, and the environment.

Charles O’Brien is the chief of psychiatry at the VA Medical Center and professor and vice chair of the Psychiatry Treatment Research Center at the University of Pennsylvania. His research interests are the neurophysiological bases of addictive disorders and their treatment and other mental disorders, particularly from the biological perspective. He was elected as a member of the Institute of Medicine in 1991.

Carol Petrie (Study Director) is director of the Committee on Law and Justice, a standing committee within the Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education at the National Research Council. She also served as the director of planning and management at the National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice, responsible for policy and administration. In 1994, she served as the acting director of the National Institute of Justice. She has conducted research on violence and public policy, and managed numerous research projects on the development of criminal behavior, domestic violence, child abuse and neglect, and improving the operations of the criminal justice system.

Robert Porter is the William R.Kenan, Jr., Professor of Economics at Northwestern University and a research associate of the National Bureau of Economic Research. Previously he held positions at the University of Minnesota and the State University of New York, Stony Brook, and he has been a visiting professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the University of Chicago. At Northwestern, he teaches graduate courses in industrial organization and undergraduate courses in econometrics and game theory. He has conducted research on a variety of topics in industrial organization, including theoretical and empirical studies of col-



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