TABLE 2.1 Classification of Abusive and Additive Drugs

Class

Description

Caffeine

Produces wakefulness, mild central nervous system (CNS) and cardiovascular stimulation, Mild tolerance, dependence following chronic use.

Alcohol

Produces dose-dependent relaxation, disinhibition, mild euphoria, inebriation, intoxication, CNS depression, liver damage. Significant tolerance and dependence-withdrawal following chronic use; intense craving, alcoholism.

Nicotine

Produces mild CNS and cardiovascular stimulation. Tolerance and dependence-withdrawal following chronic use; intense craving; nicotine addiction.

Depressants (sedatives, hypnotics, anxiolytics): barbiturates, methadqualone, diazepam, and other benzodiazepines

Produce dose-dependent relaxation, disinhibition, mild euphoria, inebriation, intoxication, CNS depression. Significant tolerance and dependence withdrawal following chronic use; craving; addiction.

Cannabinoids (marijuana, hashish: tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)

Produce dose-dependent relaxation, disinhibition; alterations of mood, emotion and behavior; inebriation, intoxication. Mild tolerance.

Opiates (opioids) and related analgesics: heroin, codeine, morphine, synthetic opioids.

Produce dose-dependent analgesia, euphoria, disinhibition, anesthesia, CNS depression. Significant tolerance and dependence-withdrawal following chronic use; intense craving; opioid addiction.

Stimulant: cocaine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, methylphenidate

Produce dose-dependent mild-strong CNS stimulation, behavioral hyperactivity, adverse cardiovascular effects, euphoria. Tolerance and dependence withdrawal following chronic use; intense craving; addiction.

Hallucinogens: lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), mescaline, psilocybin, dimethyltryptamine (DMT), dimethoxymethylamphetamine (DOM), MDA, MDMA (“ecstasy”), phensyclidine (PCP; “angel dust”) ketamine

Symptoms vary depending on which drug: visual distortions, hallucinations, mood changes, arousal, euphoria, anxiety, agitation, emotional withdrawal, thought disturbances, aggressive behavior, panic, catatonia. Mild tolerance with chronic use; little or no withdrawal.

Inhalants: solvents, aerosols, acetone, benzene, nitrous oxide, amyl nitrate

Produce dose-dependent relaxation, mild euphoria, dizziness, disinhibition, inebriation, intoxication, anesthesia, CNS depression, liver damage, cardiovascular depression.

 

Source: Institute of Medicine (1997: Table 1.1).



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