them once they are in place. Finally, such research should identify program strategies, resource needs, and approaches to staff training and retention that can cultivate and support the features of positive developmental settings in community programs for youth.

Also, it is our view that evaluations designed with some of the principles outlined in the next chapter will tell us much more about why particular programs work and for whom they are likely to be most effective. And new programs can be designed with some of the principles outlined in earlier chapters. If such programs are designed from the beginning with a well-articulated theory of change grounded in solid developmental theory and research, we will learn a lot more about what programs might do to facilitate positive youth development and to prevent problems from emerging,



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