psychological safety

of youth; youth injuries requiring hospitalization; violent crime rate; school violence reports

and neighborhood

community disorganization; perceived availability of drugs, hand guns; family conflict

seen as unsafe

Supportive relationships


Positive parent/youth communication; family provides high levels of love and support; support from adults besides parents; community support (caring, value youth); school environment as caring, encouraging

Positive parent/youth relationships (closeness, activities); number of home and school moves; perceived community support for prosocial involvement



Gang membership (police report)

Youth cares about the school; religious attendance; hanging out with friends

Religious attendance; community attachment; gang membership


Positive social norms

Neighborhood crime rates



High percentage of single-parent families in neighborhood; high rates of social service receipt in neighborhood

Parents and other adults provide positive role models; friends model positive behaviors

Friends’ involvement in drug use, arrest, school suspension, school dropout, theft; peer attitudes on drug use, carrying handgun; friends in gang; neighborhood laws


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