and norms favorable to drug use; parents’ attitudes about drug use, antisocial behavior; antisocial behavior by other family members (drug use, carry gun, suspended/expelled from school


Support for efficacy


Parents help youth to succeed in school; youth encouraged to do well (parents and teachers)

Youth perceives lots of about chances to engage in class discussions and activities; teachers praise youth when they work hard and do well

Taught about AIDS/HIV in school

Opportunities for skill building

Proportion of youth required to perform community service; capacity of community-sponsored youth programs (centers, sports, etc.); students with Individual Education Plans; percent of students in gifted/talented

Youth given useful roles within community

Opportunities for prosocial involvement in community (sports, scouting, 4-H, service clubs); youth perceives many opportunities for involvement in school sports, clubs, etc.


Integration of family, schools, and community

Proportion of parents who come to parent-teacher conferences

Whether parents come to school meetings/events

School lets parents know when youth performs well


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