TABLE 8–3 National Youth Surveys: Features of Social Settings Affecting Youth Development

Features of Settings

National Educational Longitudinal Survey** (NELS)

National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health (Add Health)

National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997 Cohort (NLSY97)

Monitoring the Future (MTF)a

Structure

Clear parental rules; parental monitoring; parental encouragement (P+Y for all)

Clear rules (Y); communication between environments (P); monitoring (P)

Parent: monitoring (Y); clear/fair rules (Y+P); teacher: clear/fair rules

Parent: clear/fair rules; monitoring; School: clear/fair rules

Supportive relationships

Positive parent-child interaction/relationships; positive child-other adult interaction; parental/other-adult encouragement (P+Y for all)

Positive parent-child interaction/relationship; closeness of parent-child relationship (P+Y for all)

Positive parent-child interaction/relationship; emotional support; parental encouragement (Y for all)

Positive parent-child interaction/ relationship

Belonging

Gang membership (Y); opportunity for extracurricular participation (Y+S); parental community involvement (Y+P)

Feel part of group; feel valued by others; opportunity for extracurricular participation;

opportunity for involvement with religious institution (Y for all) Opportunity for extracurricular participation; parental involvement in school/community (Y for all)

Civic involvement; opportunity for extracurricular participation; feeling a part of a group

Social norms

School policies (S); peer norms (positive and negative) (Y)

Peer norms (positive and negative); neighbor intervening (Y for all)

Peer norms (positive and negative) (Y for all)

Peer norms (positive and negative)



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