estimate that more than 300,000 children in the state and more than 50,000 in the city of Philadelphia need financial assistance in order to participate in these programs. In a review of two youth programs in the Philadelphia area, this report highlighted the disparate nature of the funding for these programs. A large, well-established agency with locations in low- and middle-income neighborhoods reaching 5,000 youth each year received funding from the following sources: corporations (2 percent); federal competitive grants (5 percent); federal child care and child care food programs (17 percent); foundations (13 percent); individuals/ special events (9 percent); membership and child care fees (34 percent); state funding (3 percent); and the United Way (16 percent). A smaller, well-established program with several sites serving 1,000 youth each year received funding from the following sources: corporations (8 percent); federal competitive grants (25 percent); federal child care and child care food programs (none); foundations (32 percent); individuals/special events (10.5 percent); membership and child care fees (1 percent); state funding (none); and the United Way (23 percent). The smaller program was heavily dependent on the philanthropic community and special federal government grants, which offer less long-term support and require a greater focus on prevention activities than on broad youth development goals.
The biggest single funding development in recent years has been the rapid expansion of 21st Century Community Learning Centers (CCLCs), funded in fiscal year (FY) 2000 at $453 million, increasing to an $846 million appropriation in FY 2001 (U.S. Department of Education, 2000). The effort began with $750,000 in FY 1995 and grew to $200 million in FY 1999 (General Services Administration, 2001; McCallion, 2000). The CCLCs provide funds primarily to schools and school districts, in some cases working in partnership with community-based organizations, for after-school, weekend, and summer activities. As of FY 1999 the programs were serving 400,000 children and youth and 200,000 adults (McCallion, 2000). With the new grants awarded in 2001, this program has increased its support to 6,800 centers, serving 1.2 million children and 400,000 adults (U.S. Department of Education, 2000).