distributors of the funds. They are required to establish youth councils to advise on a youth strategy, and 30 percent of the funds must be spent on out-of-school youth (Institute for Youth Development, 2000; Brown, 1999). Where Youth Opportunity Grant funds have been awarded, Workforce Investment Act youth funding can be added to enrich programs and reach more young people.


Building on long-standing programs like VISTA and Foster Grandparents and on initiatives begun during the George H.W.Bush administration (1988–1992), the Corporation for National and Community Service—which administers the Americorps Program—has grown to offer over $500 million annually in a series of programs that both involve and serve young people (General Services Administration, 2001; Institute for Youth Development, 2000). In many communities there are youth-serving programs funded by Americorps (and the VISTA components of the corporation’s programs). Very often the staff members in these programs include young people (junior and senior high school students) from the low-income neighborhood or area being served. Sometimes they are youth who dropped out of school and are in Americorps as members of bridge programs to finish high school and move into the job market. For some, these bridge programs are an avenue out of welfare. A substantial proportion of these activities have roots in the kinds of positive youth development activities stressed throughout this report.

Temporary Assistance for Needy Families

Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) was created by the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 and was the successor to Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), or welfare (Reder, 2000). As a block grant, the $16 billion is available annually to the states for a wide variety of purposes, including community programs for youth. Consequently, whether the precise purpose is child care for school-age children and youth or prevention of teen pregnancy or welfare receipt, TANF is an important source of funding for community programs for youth (Kaplan and Sachs, 1999). Expert groups like the Center on Law and Social Policy (Greenberg, 1998) and the Finance Project (Flynn, 1999) have authored and distributed

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