handbooks explaining how TANF funds can be used for out-of-school-hours programs.

Although only a relatively small part of these funds are being used for community programs for youth, the fact that after-school child care currently is critical to successful welfare-to-work strategies opens the possibility for substantial funding for community programs for youth through this source. Some states and counties have used funds in this way. Los Angeles County allocated $74 million of combined TANF and state welfare funds for an after-school program that was slated to operate in 225 elementary schools and 40 middle schools by fall 2000. Los Angeles County is also using $35 million for a Community-Based Teen Services Program to reach youth in 35 high school areas with large percentages of TANF recipients, as well as $13.5 million to provide summer jobs to 9,000 young people from TANF families (Flynn, 1999). Similarly, Illinois is using TANF funds to pay for about a third of its $18.5 million Teen REACH program, a model youth development and pregnancy and substance abuse prevention program that includes academic help, recreation, mentoring, and life skills training. The program was in 75 sites at the end of 1999, including both schools and nonprofit organizations like the Boys and Girls Clubs, reaching an estimated 34,000 youth ages 10 to 17 (Flynn, 1999; Cohen and Greenberg, 2000). Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Michigan, New York, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Texas, Vermont, and Wisconsin, as well as Mecklenburg County (Charlotte), Philadelphia, and Washington County, Ohio, all use TANF funds to help finance after-school and summer programs, teen pregnancy prevention programs (Flynn, 1999; Cohen and Greenberg, 2000), and Youth Corps and Conservation Corps programs (Cohen, 2000a).

Other Federal Programs
U.S. Department of Agriculture

The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) has been a pioneer in community programs for youth, with its decades-old 4-H program. Begun as a way to involve farm and other rural youth in constructive community activities, 4-H now runs programs in urban areas, contributing to positive outcomes for millions of young people every year. A special appropriation through USDA for a national Children, Youth, and Families at Risk initiative enables 4-H to focus particular activities on at-risk



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