youth and families (U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2001). The USDA is also an important source of funding for meals and snacks for children participating in a variety of community programs for youth, including schools (Langford, 2000a; Wilgoren, 2000). The 4-H program receives support from a combination of federal, state, and local public funding.

U.S. Department of Justice

The U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) is a significant provider of community programs for youth. Most of what it offers for youth comes from either block or formula grants to states that can be used for community programs for youth or more specialized program grants administered from Washington, D.C., for such activities. In the former category are the Byrne Formula Grant Program ($508 million in FY 2000), the Juvenile Accountability Incentive Block Grants ($221 million in FY 2000), and the formula grant portion of the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (JJDP) Program ($76.5 million in FY 2000) (General Services Administration, 2001). Among the 26 permissible purposes of Byrne grants is gang prevention, and about $12 million of the Byrne funds went to crime and gang prevention in FY 1998 (General Services Administration, 2001; Reder, 2000). Although the spirit of the legislation is targeted toward enforcement activities, the Juvenile Accountability Incentive Block Grants can be used for prevention programs. However, some states and localities are reluctant to use these funds because they are required to either enact or certify that they are considering prosecution of additional juveniles as adults, graduated sanctions, and the opening of juvenile records. The long-standing JJDP formula grant provides another source of funds for such community prevention programs.

The smaller specialized programs funded directly from Washington, D.C., include the Juvenile Mentoring Program (JUMP) ($12 million in FY 2000), the Weed and Seed Program ($32 million in FY 2000), the special emphasis portion of the JJDP program ($23.8 million in FY 2000), the Tribal Youth Program ($12.5 million in FY 2000), the Gang-Free Schools and Communities Program ($16.9 million in FY 2000), and a special appropriation of $50 million for the Boys and Girls Clubs of America (up from $40 million in FY 1999) (General Services Administration, 2001).

DOJ, especially through the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), has taken a special interest in recent years in stimulating the creation of community programs for youth. OJJDP spon-



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