funds, combined with private sources, were projected to have added 1,200 new sites serving 95,000 additional children across the state by the 2000–2001 school year (Foundation Consortium, 2000). Almost none of the new funds, however, are being spent on high school age youth, and observers estimate the overall number of young people in need of services to be 1.2 to 1.5 million statewide (Dominguez-Arms, 2000). The new state legislation requires spending on youth development activities apart from academic enrichment, yet a substantial number of the new sites across the state are essentially homework centers. Also, priority for funding under the new state program is to be given to schools in which half or more of the students are eligible for free or reduced-price school lunches (California School Boards Association, 1999a).

California’s experience exemplifies a fact that is ubiquitous across the nation—outside of the basic cost of paying for schooling, it spends far more on younger children than it does on youth. For example, as its after-school investment was ramping up to $85 million, it was undertaking implementation of its recent Proposition 10, which by popular vote created a 50-cent excise tax on tobacco products to be spent on early childhood supports and services, with revenues projected at $690 million for FY 2000 (California School Boards Association, 1999a).

Efforts in other states reflect a variety of approaches to after-school programming. Governor (now Senator) Thomas Carper of Delaware made what the National Governors’ Association calls “extra learning opportunities,” or ELOs, his Chairman’s Initiative during his period as chair in 1998 and 1999 (National Governor’s Association, 1999). In response to a survey he conducted, 26 states said they had increased or were planning to increase funding for ELOs (Olsen, 2000). Maryland recently enacted an After-School Opportunity Fund, which requires a $10 million allocation by 2001. Kentucky is spending $37 million to reach 150,000 students through its Extended School Services program, up $16 million since 1991–1992. New York raised funding for after-school programs from $500,000 to $10 million for the 1999–2000 school year and added $15.2 million for the Extended Day and School Violence Prevention program. Ohio Governor Bob Taft obtained $60 million, to be spent over two years, for his OhioReads program, which will engage community organizations, libraries, and 20,000 volunteers in seeking to have all children reading at grade level by the 4th grade. He also added another $31 million for a new summer remediation program. In addition to Teen REACH in Illinois, discussed earlier, the state is spending $8.5 million on Summer Bridge, which will provide summer learning and



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