after-school opportunities for 19,000 students most at risk of not being promoted to the next grade. Delaware is adding $10.4 million for its Extra Time Program, which increases instructional time for low-achieving students (National Governor’s Association, 2000).

At the local level, Boston is an example of a city devoting major attention to expanding the quantity and quality of community programs for youth, with its 2:00 to 6:00 After-School Initiative. In FY 2000 the city committed $10.5 million to the initiative and helped leverage $17 million over the previous two years from federal, state, and private sources. Partly due to advocacy emanating from Boston, total state funding for out-of-school-hours programs had gone up from $3.7 million in FY 1998 to $15.5 million in FY 2000, and funding for school-age child care had gone from $51 to $72 million over the same period. The United Way increased its funding for relevant programs in Boston by $2.4 million, or 19 percent, during that time (City of Boston, 2000a).

As a consequence of the increased funding, 57 elementary and middle schools are now being kept open until 6:00 p.m., 11 new after-school programs in school buildings are being run by the YMCA of Greater Boston, 40 new after-school programs operate in predominantly black churches, and other after-school care has been expanded (City of Boston, 2000a).

One impressive product of the city’s 2:00 to 6:00 After-School Initiative is an extensive up-to-date, user-friendly finance guide listing possible sources of funding at all levels of government. Federal and state funds actually dispensed locally are identified as such, with the appropriate local official and office listed. When the state or federal government needs to be contacted directly, that is indicated, too. A section on web sites and publications is included as well (City of Boston, 2000a).

Relevant organizations from around the state have also developed a legislative advocacy coalition to work in the legislature for funding, an expanded age range of eligibility for child care, increased voucher reimbursement rates for agencies, and a larger state contribution to the vouchers available to families. Parents United for Child Care (PUCC), with support from the Finance Project of Washington, D.C., and the MOST Initiative (discussed in more detail below), convened a broad-based civic and governmental working group to recommend steps for advancing out-of-school programs in the city and the state. Over 60 organizations came together to create a professional advancement and development project for youth workers. A wide variety of educational, arts, museum, and other programs and institutions came forward to make technical



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