are nonprofit organizations that work with the schools, and by spring 2000 there were 100 participating schools in New York City and nine other locations around the state (After-School Corporation, 2000). The programs are located primarily in elementary schools, with some in middle, junior, and senior high schools (Wilgoren, 2000). TASC programs operate only on school days and are heavily focused on homework assistance, complemented by various arts, sports, and other recreational activities. The program costs $1,000 per participant annually, plus start-up, facilities, and staff training costs (Wilgoren, 2000). This cost does not include the supplies and other in-kind contributions from the New York City Board of Education. The Mott Foundation and the Carnegie Corporation of New York have also funded an ongoing evaluation of this program, carried out by the Policy Studies Associates, Inc., of Washington, D.C. (Policy Studies Associates, Inc., 2000).

Adherents of community programs taking a youth development approach were heartened in the early 1990s by the enthusiasm in the foundation community for programs like the Beacons and by foundation investments like those made by DeWitt Wallace. However, the more narrow academic focus of much of the new wave of after-school programs and the changed emphasis of some of the key foundations have been disappointing.

Foundations like Annie E.Casey, which premises its new 22-city initiative on the fact that families and communities should have an interactive relationship, are pursuing an approach that is congruent with a youth development perspective. Casey staff examined past efforts of the foundation and concluded that its previous efforts at community building had not focused consciously enough on strengthening communities and neighborhoods, and previous family-supporting strategies had not focused sufficiently on helping females function more effectively in the communities around them. Casey’s new priorities will support efforts to serve youth through a three-dimensional emphasis on schools, neighborhoods, and families (Annie E.Casey Foundation, 2001).

National Youth-Serving Organizations

National youth-serving organizations serve as an important support for community programs for young people because they are catalysts for a significant flow of funding to their local “franchisees.” The Carnegie Council found that there were over 17,000 youth development organizations in the United States, only several thousand of which were indepen-



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