Index

A

Accountability, 16, 230–231, 253

Across Ages program, 150

Add Health, see National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health

Administrative data, 229–230, 232, 233– 234, 236–240, 262–263, 312

geographic factors, 234, 261–262, 312

local government, 226, 232, 234–240

vital statistics, 229, 230, 232, 233, 261–262, 312

Adolescent Decision Making: Implications for Prevention Programs: Summary of a Workshop, 335

Adolescent Development and the Biology of Puberty: Summary of a Workshop on New Research, 335–336

Adolescent Transitions Project, 150, 168

Adventure programs, 179

African Americans, see Black persons

Afterschool Alliance, 271

After-School Corporation, 288–289

After-school programs, 19–21, 30–38, 46, 56, 127, 143, 250, 336

funding, 20, 36, 267, 268, 271, 273, 274, 280, 282, 283–284, 285, 288–289

meta-analyses of prevention program evaluations, 153, 163, 165

Save the Children, 126

After-School Programs to Promote Child and Adolescent Development: Summary of a Workshop, 336

Age factors, 48–50, 64–65, 302, 316, 317, 318

alcohol and drug abuse, 48

comprehensive evaluations, 220

criminal and antisocial behavior, 48

cultural ceremonies, 126, 144–145

dropouts, 48

efficacy and mattering, 134

length of adolescence, 2, 22

mentors, older adolescents as, 50, 64

meta-analyses of mental health programs, 150–165, 174

model program evaluations, 186, 188

monitoring/structure, age-appropriate, 9, 90, 93, 94, 117, 130, 301

peers, 47, 49, 50, 54, 60, 102–103

puberty onset, 52–55



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Community Programs to Promote Youth Development Index A Accountability, 16, 230–231, 253 Across Ages program, 150 Add Health, see National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health Administrative data, 229–230, 232, 233– 234, 236–240, 262–263, 312 geographic factors, 234, 261–262, 312 local government, 226, 232, 234–240 vital statistics, 229, 230, 232, 233, 261–262, 312 Adolescent Decision Making: Implications for Prevention Programs: Summary of a Workshop, 335 Adolescent Development and the Biology of Puberty: Summary of a Workshop on New Research, 335–336 Adolescent Transitions Project, 150, 168 Adventure programs, 179 African Americans, see Black persons Afterschool Alliance, 271 After-School Corporation, 288–289 After-school programs, 19–21, 30–38, 46, 56, 127, 143, 250, 336 funding, 20, 36, 267, 268, 271, 273, 274, 280, 282, 283–284, 285, 288–289 meta-analyses of prevention program evaluations, 153, 163, 165 Save the Children, 126 After-School Programs to Promote Child and Adolescent Development: Summary of a Workshop, 336 Age factors, 48–50, 64–65, 302, 316, 317, 318 alcohol and drug abuse, 48 comprehensive evaluations, 220 criminal and antisocial behavior, 48 cultural ceremonies, 126, 144–145 dropouts, 48 efficacy and mattering, 134 length of adolescence, 2, 22 mentors, older adolescents as, 50, 64 meta-analyses of mental health programs, 150–165, 174 model program evaluations, 186, 188 monitoring/structure, age-appropriate, 9, 90, 93, 94, 117, 130, 301 peers, 47, 49, 50, 54, 60, 102–103 puberty onset, 52–55

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Community Programs to Promote Youth Development scope of study at hand, 34, 38, 46 sexual activity, 48, 163 smoking, 238 social indicator data, general, 201 staffing of programs, 131 unstructured/unsupervised activity, 30 Aggressive behavior, see Violence AIDS/HIV, 2, 27, 192 Alcohol and drug abuse, 2, 23, 35, 65, 83 belongingness, 97, 155 communication and social skills, 50, 111 historical perspectives, 25, 27 meta-analyses of prevention program evaluations, 151, 154, 155, 157, 158, 159, 160, 165, 173, 177, 193 model program evaluations, 188 norms, 112, 160 parental involvement in programs, 110–111 physical activity and, 109 survey data, 236–240, 241, 242–243, 244, 245, 249, 262 unstructured/unsupervised time and, 29, 30 American Indians, 79, 97, 105–106, 128, 144, 272, 280 America’s Promise, 279 Americorps, 273 Annie E.Casey Foundation, 289 Anthropology, see Ethnographic/ anthropological approaches Artistic endeavors, 20, 121, 127, 135, 237, 240, 241, 283–284, 286, 303 dance, 121, 124, 133, 136, 303 music, 23, 107, 127, 133, 135, 237, 241, 303 Aspen Roundtable on Comprehensive Community Initiatives, 260 Athletics, see Sports and athletics Attitudes, 1, 42, 318 see also Belongingness; Mental health and illness; Motivation; Public opinion; Self-esteem meta-analyses of prevention programs, 150–166 (passim) misogyny, 33 parental, 166 school transitions, 62–63, 64 staff of programs, 131 B Belongingness, 8, 9, 32, 43, 59, 81, 90, 96–99, 117, 132–133, 191, 239, 250, 301 see also Peers and friends alcohol and drug abuse, 97, 155 cultural factors, 97–99, 326–327 experimental studies, 99, 151, 153, 154, 155; see also “meta-analyses…” below gangs, 23–24, 29, 32, 33, 45, 55, 59, 82, 89, 91, 130, 239, 250, 275 gender factors, 132 meta-analyses of prevention programs, 151, 153, 154, 155, 158, 161, 162, 164, 165 religious affiliation, 98–99, 132 The Best of Intentions: Unintended Pregnancy and the Well-Being of Children and Families, 336 Bicultural Competence Skills program, 151 Big Brothers/Big Sisters, 12, 95–96, 132, 151, 170–171, 173, 187–189, 190–191, 220, 307 Biological factors, 46, 49, 51–56, 315–316, 321–322, 338 brain development, 56, 316, 338 puberty onset, 46, 51, 53, 54, 55, 316, 335–336 Black persons, 23, 143, 283 belongingness, 98 ceremonial celebrations, 124–145 educational progress, 26 homicide, 27–28 intellectual development, 76 parents, 111–112 psychological and emotional development, 80–81 puberty onset, 53, 54–55 smoking, 27

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Community Programs to Promote Youth Development Block grants, 3, 273, 275, 276, 277–278, 279, 280 Boy Scouts and Girl Scouts, 290 Boys and Girls Clubs of America, 76, 107, 124, 274, 275, 290 Brain development, 56, 316, 338 Brainpower Program, 151 Bullying, 5, 9, 152, 170, 173 Bullying Prevention Program, 152, 170, 173 Byrne Formula Grant Program, 275 C Carnegie Council on Adolescent Development, 22, 107, 125, 128, 289–290 Catholic Charities, 142–143 Center for Youth Development, 263–264 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 279 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 236–240, 243–244, 252, 262 Charles Stewart Mott Foundation, 288 Charter schools, 285–286 Child abuse and neglect, 188, 238–239, 249, 278, 281, 340–341 Child Care and Development Block Grant, 280 Child care services, 283 Child Development Project, 153 Children at Risk, 276 Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance, 336–337 Children, Youth, and Families At-Risk Initiative and Evaluation Collaboration Project, 245 Children’s Aid Society, 141 Cognitive factors, 6, 7, 8, 29, 56–58, 65, 91, 107, 108, 135, 300, 321 see also Decision making; Education adventure programs, 179 gender, 76, 77–78 meta-analyses of prevention program evaluations, 153, 157, 159, 162, 166, 176, 177, 179 nutrition, 74–75 peer interactions, 59 physical activity and sports and, 109– 110 school transitions, 63, 64 structured supervision, 91 surveys, 236, 244, 246–247, 248 well-being, general, 73, 74, 76–79 Communities That Care, 138–139 Community Change for Youth Development, 140 Community Counts, 123, 124, 131 Community Health Centers, 278 Community Impact!, 123, 125, 130–131, 137, 291 Community Network for Youth Development, 255–256 Community service, see Volunteer programs Community Services Block Grants, 278 Computer applications, 153, 185, 271 geographic information systems, 247, 263 Internet, 18, 37 Conservation Corps, 274 Contraception and contraceptives, 237 funding for programs, 278–279 historical perspectives, 25, 26–27 meta-analyses of prevention programs, 161, 163 Cooperative Extension Service, 244–245 Coping and Support Training, 153 Coping with Stress Course, 153, 169, 171 Corporation for National and Community Service, 273 Cost factors, see Economic factors; Funding Counselor-CARE, 153 Creating Lasting Connections, 154 Crime, 2, 269 see also Alcohol and drug abuse; Violence administrative data, 233–234 child abuse and neglect, 188, 238–239, 249, 278, 281, 340–341 funding for anti-crime programs, 13, 275–276, 281

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Community Programs to Promote Youth Development gangs, 23–24, 29, 32, 33, 45, 55, 59, 82, 89, 91, 130, 239, 250, 275 homicide, 27–28 meta-analyses of prevention programs, 155, 158, 161, 173 peer influences, 60; see also “gangs” above survey data, 237, 238, 239, 249 voluntary structured activities and, 30 Cultural factors, 9, 22, 33, 35, 37, 47, 85, 87, 88, 90, 114, 135, 136, 305, 316, 320, 325–327 see also Ethnographic/anthropological approaches; Race/ethnicity; Racism; Religious/spiritual factors and programs belongingness, 97–99, 326–327 ceremonies, 126, 143–145, 325 Community Impact!, 125 comprehensive evaluations, 220 efficacy and mattering, 105–106, 108 intellectual development and, 77 mattering, 105–106, 108 meta-analyses of prevention program evaluations, 151 model program evaluations, 185 multiculturalism, 2, 6, 7, 9, 50, 71, 74, 75, 78–79, 82, 90, 97, 98, 99, 107, 151, 165, 241, 248, 287, 301, 327 bilingual education, 276–277 experimental studies, 99, 151, 153, 154, 155 school curricula, 97, 108, 276–277 norms, 102, 112 organizational, 112 parent-child relations, 61, 96, 111–112 self-efficacy, 105–106, 108 skill building, 106–107 structure, levels of, 93 survey data, 235, 241, 248 well-being, universality vs cultural specificity, 67–68 D Dance, 121, 124, 133, 136, 303 Data collection, 11–12, 17–18, 83, 124, 228–264, 308, 312–314, 338–339 see also Administrative data; Experimental studies; Longitudinal studies; Methodological issues; Nonexperimental studies; Surveys committee study methodology, 5 recommendations, 11–12, 17–18, 312– 314 social indicator data, 12, 68–69, 75, 82–83, 197–264, 312–314; see also Longitudinal studies; Surveys Decision making, 6, 7, 8, 27, 56–58, 79, 136, 335, 341 civic, 127–128, 250, 287 efficacy and mattering, 105–106, 134 employment planning, 46, 50, 51, 57, 65, 323 family, within, 92, 96 meta-analyses of prevention programs, 163, 164, 177 program design, adolescent participation in, 65, 134–135 well-being, general, 74, 76 Delinquency, see Crime Demographics, 22, 34 see also Age factors; Gender factors; Immigrants; Race/ethnicity; Rural areas; Socioeconomic status; Urban areas census data, 233 Demonstration programs, 140, 220, 221, 226, 275–276, 279 theory, 15, 226, 311 Department of Agriculture, 244–245, 274– 275 Department of Education, 13 21st Century Learning Centers, 20, 31, 270–271, 280, 281–282, 287, 288, 295

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Community Programs to Promote Youth Development Department of Health and Human Services, 13, 277–279, 281, 293 see also Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Department of Housing and Urban Development, 276 Department of Justice, 13, 275–276 Department of Labor, 277 Youth Opportunity Grants, 272 Depression, 52, 53, 54, 153, 169, 243 suicide, 27, 153, 236, 249 DeWitt Wallace Reader’s Digest Fund, 254–255, 286–287, 289, 294 Diet, see Nutrition Disabled children, see Special needs children Dropouts, 25, 26, 30, 236, 299 age factors, 48 Americorps, 273 meta-analyses of prevention programs, 157, 161, 164, 174 Drug abuse, see Alcohol and drug abuse E Eating disorders, 52, 53, 54, 236, 244 Economic factors, 2 see also Funding; Poverty; Socioeconomic status ethnographic study costs, 211 evaluation costs, general, 211, 219 experimental evaluation costs, 219 financial incentives, program participants, 116, 185 program costs, 181, 223–225, 252– 253, 268, 269, 289, 290 survey costs, 232, 245, 246, 252 Education, 2, 6, 10, 133, 276–277, 279– 280, 341 see also Cognitive factors; Mass media; Mastery; Schools compensatory education, 276 comprehensive evaluations, 220 decision making, 46 employment, adolescents, 2, 6, 48, 51, 65, 74, 82–83, 91, 104–105, 106, 127, 136, 163, 174–175, 185, 192– 193, 269, 273–274, 277–278 school-to-work programs, 3, 23, 49, 273–274, 277 staff of programs, 131, 286–287, 291–292, 293–294, 307; see also Technical assistance immigrants, 337 mathematics, 77–78, 157 parental, 3, 150–166 (passim), 168, 173, 193 reading, 29, 127, 135, 282 tutoring, 57, 64, 77, 109, 121, 127, 135 peer, 109, 161, 164, 165, 185 well-being, general, 74 Educational attainment, 25, 26, 49, 107– 108, 236, 299, 339 see also Dropouts gender factors, 77–78 National Assessment of Educational Progress, 26 puberty onset, age at, 54 staffing of programs, 131 unstructured/unsupervised time and, 29, 30 Efficacy, see Self-efficacy Emotional factors, 2, 5, 6–7, 8, 9, 38, 79– 81, 91, 94, 113, 117, 236, 248, 301 see also Mattering decision making, 335 meta-analyses of prevention programs, 150–165 (passim), 172, 176, 179 model program evaluations, 188 puberty onset, 46, 51, 52, 55 self-regulation, 70, 72, 74, 79, 96, 103–104, 150, 151, 154, 159, 168, 169–170, 177, 182, 248 structured supervision, 91–92 theoretical perspectives, 70, 37, 74–75

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Community Programs to Promote Youth Development Employment, 127, 341 adolescent development and, 21, 22 occupational safety and health, 339– 340 parental, 1, 33, 133, 283, 297 planning, 46, 50, 51, 57, 65, 323 school-to-work programs, 3, 23, 49, 273–274, 277 skills for, adolescents, 2, 6, 48, 51, 65, 74, 82–83, 91, 104–105, 106, 127, 136, 163, 174–175, 185, 192– 193, 269, 273–274, 277–278 school-to-work programs, 3, 23, 49, 273–274, 277 staff of programs, 131, 286–287, 291–292, 293–294, 307; see also Technical assistance welfare-to-work strategies, 273–274 women, 36–37 ENABL, 154 Erikson, Eric, 47, 57, 70, 315–319 Ethnicity, see Race/ethnicity Ethnographic/anthropological approaches, 68, 87, 88, 97, 123–124, 206, 210–211, 257, 300, 320, 325– 326 Evaluation, 11–17, 46, 124, 125, 126, 138–139, 147–264, 305–314 see also Data collection; Experimental studies; Meta-analyses of program evaluations; Methodological issues; Outcome assessment; Quasi-experimental studies; Research recommendations; Theoretical issues accountability, 16, 230–231, 253 committee study methodology, 4, 5 comprehensive, 12, 14, 15, 16, 67, 76, 81, 85, 120, 128, 149, 181, 199, 206–227, 310–312 diet and cardiovascular health, 76 intermediary organizations, 10, 11, 18, 141–142, 229, 255, 259–261, 294, 295, 304, 313–314 model programs, 181–189, 190, 220, 307 program implementation and operation, 14, 15, 16, 18, 84, 122, 177, 184, 186, 188, 213, 215, 217, 221, 222, 225, 229, 252–261, 309–310 development quality, 253–254 funding for evaluation, 252, 254– 256, 259, 271, 288 process evaluation, 140, 188, 189, 198, 202–203, 206, 208, 209, 210–211, 262–263 psychological and emotional development, 79–80 recommendations, 11, 13–18, 305, 308–312 social indicator data, 12, 68–69, 75, 82–83, 197–264, 312–314; see also Longitudinal studies; Surveys summative evaluations, see Outcome assessment time-series designs, 214–216, 221 well-being, general, 67–70 youth program participants as evaluators, 135 Exercise, see Physical activity; Sports and athletics Experimental studies, 13, 14–16, 85, 147– 195, 204, 206, 211–213, 214, 216, 219, 220, 221, 227, 305, 309–311 see also Meta-analyses of program evaluations; Quasi-experimental studies defined, 205 intellectual development, 78 model program evaluations, 183 multiculturalism and belongingness, 99, 151, 153, 154, 155 social indicator data, 202 well-being, general, 69, 82, 83 Extended Service Schools, 254–255

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Community Programs to Promote Youth Development F Faith-based programs, see Religious/ spiritual factors and programs Family factors, 1, 3, 8, 10, 31, 72, 87, 193, 289, 339 see also Parents child abuse and neglect, 188, 238–239, 249, 278, 281, 340–341 guns in homes, 89 meta-analyses of prevention programs, 150–165 (passim) norms, 103 structured controls within, 92 technical assistance, 292–293 Federal government, 13, 338 see also Funding; Legislation; specific departments and agencies Females, see Gender factors Finance Project, 284, 285, 287 Firearms, see Guns Foreign countries, see International perspectives Forgotten Half, 21 Formative evaluation, see Process evaluation Foundations, 21, 71 funding, 3, 4, 20, 24, 198, 267–268, 269, 270, 271, 286–289, 294– 295 organizational support, 10, 136–137 4-H program, 274–275 Friendly PEERsuasion, 155 Friends, see Peers and friends From Generation to Generation: The Health and Well-Being of Children of Immigrant Families, 337 Functional Family Therapy, 155 Funding, 2, 3, 11, 13, 14, 15, 17, 18, 20– 21, 32, 36, 46, 263, 267–296, 309, 313 accountability, 16, 230–231, 253 after-school programs, 20, 36, 267, 268, 271, 273, 274, 280, 282, 283–284, 285, 288–289 block grants, 3, 273, 275, 276, 277– 278, 279, 280 intermediaries, 10, 11, 18, 141–142, 229, 255, 259–261, 294, 295, 304, 313–314 poverty, 268, 272, 276, 279, 280, 281 pregnancy prevention, 274, 278–279 prevention vs promotion programs, 36 private, 3, 4, 10, 11, 13, 18, 20, 223– 224, 254–255, 268–270, 286– 291, 304, 313–314 corporations, 270, 273, 290–291 foundations, 3, 4, 20, 24, 198, 267–268, 269, 270, 271, 286– 289, 294–295 program implementation evaluation and, 252, 254–256, 259, 271, 288 public, 2, 3, 11, 14, 15, 17, 18, 20–21, 37, 139, 223–224, 242, 252, 266–286, 293, 294–296, 298, 304, 306, 313–314 block grants, 3, 273, 275, 276, 278, 279, 280 local government, 20, 268, 280– 286, 294–295, 296, 304 state, 20, 139, 252, 269–270, 274, 278, 279, 280–286, 293, 294– 295, 296 school programs, 276–277, 278, 285– 286, 289 social indicator data and, 198, 206 tobacco, litigation and tax revenues, 282, 285 G Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Programs, 277 Gangs, 23–24, 29, 32, 33, 45, 55, 59, 82, 89, 91, 130, 239, 250, 275 Gender factors, 37, 90, 318 see also Pregnancy; Sexual activity belongingness, 132 comprehensive evaluations, 220

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Community Programs to Promote Youth Development educational attainment, 77–78 employment of women, 36–37 intellectual development, 76, 77–78 misogyny, 33 puberty, 46, 51–54, 55, 316, 335–336 sports and athletics, 101–102, 109 suicide, 27 General Accounting Office, 31 Geographic factors see also Neighborhood factors; Rural areas; Urban areas administrative data, 234, 261–262, 312 geographic information systems, 247, 263 program scope, general, 32 Girls Clubs, see Boys and Girls Clubs of America Growing Healthy, 156 Growing Up Tobacco Free: Preventing Nicotine Addiction in Children and Youths , 337–338 Guns, 28, 130, 237, 238, 239, 240, 249 historical perspectives, 25 in home, 89 racial/ethnic factors, 28 in schools, 2, 23–24, 25, 162, 299 H Handicapped children, see Special needs children Harvard Family Research Project, 142 Health status, 6, 9, 31, 32, 73–76, 249, 278–280, 335–336 see also Alcohol and drug abuse; Biological factors; Mental health and illness; Nutrition; Physical activity; Pregnancy; Safety and security; Sexual activity; Sexually transmitted diseases; Smoking; Sports and athletics administrative data, 233 vital statistics, 229, 230, 232, 233, 261–262, 312 cardiovascular disease, 74, 76 historical perspectives, 26–27 immigrants, 337 meta-analyses of prevention programs, 151, 153, 156, 157, 161 obesity, 2, 27, 74, 75, 115, 299 Healthy People 2010, 230 Hispanics, 23 alcohol abuse, 27 ceremonial celebrations, 144–145 dropouts, 26 homicide, 27–28 psychological and emotional development, 79 smoking, 27 Historical perspectives, 2, 25–31, 115, 128, 138–139, 267 see also Longitudinal studies adolescent development theory, 21–22, 45, 47, 56, 57, 70, 71 alcohol and drug abuse, 25, 27 foundation funding, 286 previous National Academy reports, 335–341 well-being, general, 2, 25, 70, 71, 72 HIV, see AIDS/HIV Homicide, 27–28 Homosexuality, 5, 9, 98, 99, 132–133 HOPE VI program, 276 How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School: Expanded Edition, 338 Human Services Reauthorization Act, 279–280 I Immigrants, 79, 111, 336–337 see also Hispanics Improving Intergroup Relations Among Youth: Summary of a Research Workshop, 338 Improving Social Awareness-Social Problem Solving, 156, 170 Individuals With Disabilities Education Act, 276–277 Institute for Youth Development, 293

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Community Programs to Promote Youth Development Integrating Federal Statistics on Children: Report of a Workshop, 338–339 Interdisciplinary research, 309 funding, 17 Intermediary organizations, 10, 11, 18, 141–142, 229, 255, 259–261, 294, 295, 304, 313–314 International perspectives, 125 bullying prevention, 152, 170, 173 discretionary time, 28 puberty, 54 school-to-work programs, 23 Internet, 18, 37 J Job Corps, 277 Juvenile Accountability Incentive Block Grants, 275 Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Program, 275 K Kids Learning in Computer Klubhouses, 271 Know Your Body, 156 L Leadership, 8 Legislation child labor laws, 339–340 Human Services Reauthorization Act, 279–280 Individuals With Disabilities Education Act, 276–277 Public Health Services Act, 278–279 Safe and Drug-Free Schools and Communities Act, 277 Social Security Act, 278 21st Century Learning Centers, 271 Workforce Investment Act, 272–273 Younger Americans Act, 127, 279–280 Life skills, 6, 43, 74, 76, 78, 83, 85, 106, 107–108, 110, 136, 142, 248, 301, 302 employment, adolescents, 2, 6, 48, 51, 65, 74, 82–83, 91, 104–105, 106, 127, 136, 163, 174–175, 185, 192– 193, 269, 273–274, 277–278 school-to-work programs, 3, 23, 49, 273–274, 277 funding, 274 meta-analyses of programs, 150–165 (passim), 168, 172, 173, 178, 192 model program evaluations, 185 self-regulation, 70, 72, 74, 79, 96, 103–104, 150, 151, 154, 159, 168, 169–170, 177, 182, 248 Life Skills Training program, 157, 173 Local government and organizations, 294 see also Neighborhood factors administrative data, 226, 232, 234–240 funding, 20, 268, 280–286, 294–295, 296, 304 surveys, 262, 312 Longitudinal studies, 12, 13, 69, 72, 83, 85, 229, 245–246, 300, 305, 306, 339 efficacy and mastery, 105 Monitoring the Future, 246, 248–251 National Assessment of Educational Progress, 26 National Educational Longitudinal Survey, 246–247, 248–251 National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, 27, 28, 55, 246, 248–251 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 30, 246 parental support, 95 psychological and emotional development, 79, 80, 81 social development, 81 time-series designs, 214–216, 221 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey, 236–240, 243–244, 252, 262

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Community Programs to Promote Youth Development Longitudinal Surveys of Children, 339 Losing Generations: Adolescents in High-Risk Settings, 339 Louisiana State Youth Opportunities, 157 M Mass media, 193 alcohol and drug use portrayed in, 1–2, 23 decision making by adolescents, 335 literacy, 10, 33, 91, 106 social norms, general, 101 television, 28, 31, 101, 236, 244 violence portrayed in, 1–2, 23, 101, 297 Mastery, 104, 108, 302 see also Self-efficacy motivation, 7, 70, 75, 106 social development, 81 theoretical perspectives, 8, 47, 70 Mathematica Policy Research, 271 Mathematics achievement, 77–78, 157 A Matter of Time, 22, 107, 128 Mattering, 8, 9, 43, 51, 71, 80, 90, 104– 106, 134–135, 192, 241–242, 302 cultural factors, 105–106, 108 Media, see Mass media Medicaid, 279 Men, see Gender factors Mental health and illness, 31, 48, 236, 248, 318 see also Alcohol and drug abuse; Attitudes; Belongingness; Emotional factors; Mattering; Self-esteem; Violence depression, 52, 53, 54, 153, 169, 243 suicide, 27, 153, 236, 249 eating disorders, 52, 53, 54, 236, 244 immigrants, 337 intellectual development and, 76–77 meta-analyses of prevention program evaluations, 148, 149, 150–172, 179 model program evaluations, 182 puberty onset, 46, 53, 52 safety and security, sense of, 1, 7, 9, 43, 70, 89–91, 129–130, 301 well-being, general, 73, 74–75 Mentors, 3, 36, 87, 127, 190–191, 236, 272 Big Brothers/Big Sisters, 12, 95–96, 132, 151, 170–171, 173, 187– 189, 190–191, 220, 307 comprehensive evaluations, 220 meta-analyses of prevention program evaluations, 150, 151, 161, 165 model program evaluations, 186, 187– 189, 190–191 older adolescents as, 50, 64 school transitions, 64 Meta-analyses of program evaluations, 147, 148–181 age factors, 150–165, 174 alcohol and drug abuse, 151, 154, 155, 157, 158, 159, 160, 165, 173, 177, 193 belongingness, 151, 153, 154, 155, 158, 161, 162, 164, 165 cognitive factors, 153, 157, 159, 162, 166, 176, 177, 179 crime, 155, 158, 161, 173 decision making, 163, 164, 177 dropouts, 157, 161, 164, 174 emotional factors, 150–165 (passim), 172, 176, 179 health status, 151, 153, 156, 157, 161 life skills, 150–165 (passim), 168, 172, 173, 178, 192 mental illness, 148, 149, 150–172, 179 mentors, 150, 151, 161, 165 parents, 150–165 (passim), 168, 173, 174, 193 peers, 154, 159, 160, 161, 162, 164, 168, 169–170, 177 pregnancy, 148, 154, 164, 174–175 religious affiliation, 154, 176 safety and security, 151, 153, 156, 157, 161, 164, 193–194 school programs, 149–173 (passim), 175, 177, 180, 193 self-efficacy, 151, 155, 160, 161, 164, 176, 177 self-esteem, 153, 163, 164, 179

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Community Programs to Promote Youth Development sexual activity, 154, 163, 174–175, 177, 192 smoking, 151, 156, 157, 158, 160 social factors, 150–165 (passim), 170, 172, 174, 176, 179 social norms, 153–165 (passim), 172, 176 teachers, 156, 159, 162, 163, 168–169 time factors, 149–172 (passim), 179, 180 violence, 148, 151, 152, 162, 170, 172–174, 177 volunteer programs, 150, 154, 161, 164 Methodological issues, 12–13, 14, 83–84, 124–126, 338–339, 341 see also Administrative data; Evaluation; Interdisciplinary research; Qualitative evaluations; Surveys; Theoretical issues time-series designs, 214–216, 221 Midwestern Prevention Project, 158, 173, 193 Minority groups, see Race/ethnicity Monitoring the Future, 246, 248–251 MOST Initiative, 283–284, 286 Motivation, 7, 9, 70, 75, 81–82, 114, 115, 236, 241 mastery, 7, 70, 75, 106 parental support, 95 school discipline, 92 school transitions, 62–63, 64, 322 Move to Opportunity program, 202 Multiculturalism, 2, 6, 7, 9, 50, 71, 74, 75, 78–79, 82, 90, 97, 98, 99, 107, 151, 165, 241, 248, 287, 301, 327 bilingual education, 276–277 experimental studies, 99, 151, 153, 154, 155 school curricula, 97, 108, 276–277 Multidisciplinary research, see Interdisciplinary research Multisystemic Therapy, 158, 173 Music, 23, 107, 127, 133, 135, 237, 241, 303 N National Assessment of Educational Progress, 26 National Center for Charitable Statistics, 128 National Center for Community Education, 288 National Coalition for Youth, 279 National Community Education Association, 288 National Educational Longitudinal Survey, 246–247, 248–251 National Institute on Out-of-School Time, 294 National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, 27, 28, 246, 248–251 sexual behavior, 55 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 30, 124, 246, 248–251 National Neighborhood Data System, 261 National Neighborhood Indicators Project, 247, 260–261 National School Age Child Care Alliance, 293 National Training Institute for Community Youth Work, 294 National Youth Administration, 267 National Youth Development Information Center, 260 Native Americans, see American Indians Neighborhood factors, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 10, 17, 31, 38, 93, 239, 247, 289, 341 see also Local government and organizations academic achievement, 26 administrative data, 233 geographic information systems, 247, 263 high-risk, programs for, 22, 29, 184–186 Nonexperimental studies, 16, 42, 120, 122–123, 204–205, 206, 221, 227, 311 see also Longitudinal studies; Qualitative evaluations

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Community Programs to Promote Youth Development defined, 205 intellectual development, 78 model program evaluations, 183 psychological and emotional development, 80 quasi-experimental approaches, 147, 167, 174–175, 178, 194, 204, 205, 213–214, 221, 227, 309, 311 sexual activity, 101 social development, 81 social norms, 101–102 Nutrition, 74–75, 136 eating disorders, 52, 53, 54, 236, 244 funding of programs, 268, 275 obesity, 2, 27, 74, 75, 115, 299 survey data, 237, 244, 249 O Obesity, 2, 27, 74, 75, 115, 299 Open Society Institute, 288 Outcome assessment, 14, 16, 67, 72, 79– 80, 137, 140, 148–195, 236– 238, 241, 245, 255, 259, 308, 312 belongingness, 98–99 defined, 202, 203 funding of programs, 268 accountability, 16, 230–231, 253 immigrants, 337 mental health programs, 149, 166 meta-analyses of program evaluations, 148, 150–180 nonexperimental studies, 122 social indicator data, 201–203, 209– 210, 222, 308, 231, 232 see also Administrative data; Longitudinal studies; Surveys funding for, 198, 206 structure/monitoring, appropriate levels, 93, 193–194 Out-of-School Time Technical Assistance Project, 284–285 P Parents, 1, 7, 47, 48, 60–61, 94–96, 240, 323–325 academic achievement of children, 26 after-school programs, opinion of, 20– 21 child abuse and neglect, 188, 238–239, 249, 278, 281, 340–341 communication with, 50, 56, 61, 160, 161, 181–184, 192, 236, 239 comprehensive evaluations, 220 cost of programs for, 268 cultural factors, 61, 96, 111–112 education for, 3, 150–166 (passim), 168, 173, 193 meta-analyses of prevention program evaluations, 150–165 (passim), 168, 173, 174, 193 model program evaluations, 181–184, 188 peer influence vs, 59 program involvement, 110–112, 117, 136–138, 150, 240, 251 racism, parental support to palliate effects of , 95, 111–112 school program involvement, 95, 110– 112, 150–173 (passim), 240, 251, 323–324 single-parent households, 28, 188, 239, 298–299 supervision by, appropriate level of, 5, 92–93, 96, 250 survey data, 240, 248, 250, 251 teen pregnancy and parental relations, 61 working, 1, 33, 133, 283, 297 Parents United for Child Care, 283–284 Peers and friends, 7, 8, 9, 32, 46, 47, 49, 58–60, 64, 79, 107, 117, 145, 272, 302, 338 age factors, 47, 49, 50, 54, 60, 102– 103 belongingness, 97, 98–99 bullying, 5, 9, 152, 170, 173 communication skills, 50

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Community Programs to Promote Youth Development counseling, 127 crime, 60; see also “gangs” below deviant behaviors, 48, 102 gangs, 23–24, 29, 32, 33, 45, 55, 59, 82, 89, 91 meta-analyses of prevention programs, 154, 159, 160, 161, 162, 164, 168, 169–170, 177 norms, 100–101, 102–103, 133, 191, 250 parental involvement in programs, 110–111 puberty onset, age at, 54 structured activities involving, 30 survey data, 236, 237, 248, 250 tutoring, 109, 161, 164, 165, 185 unstructured activities, general, 92 Penn Prevention Project, 159, 169–170, 171 Physical activity see also Sports and athletics adventure programs, 179 alcohol and drug abuse and, 109 dance, 121, 124, 133, 136, 303 high school physical education, 27 nutrition and, 75–76 survey data, 237, 244, 249 well-being, general, 73–74 Piaget, Jean, 56, 321, 322 Positive Youth Development Program, 159 Poverty, 2, 5, 11, 28, 72, 114–115, 116– 117, 298–299 Boys and Girls Clubs, 107 compensatory education, 276 computer training, 271 cost of programs for parents, 268 funding of programs, 268, 272, 276, 279, 280, 281 housing, 202, 276 Medicaid, 279 model program evaluations, 188 obesity, 75 racism, 112 Temporary Assistance for Needy Families, 273–274, 281–282 welfare-to-work strategies, 273–274 Pregnancy, 2, 48, 55, 101, 306, 336 see also Contraception and contraceptives funding for programs, 274, 278–279 historical perspectives, 25–26 meta-analyses of program evaluations, 148, 154, 164, 174–175 model program evaluations, 181–184 parental relations and teen pregnancy, 61 qualitative program evaluations, 258 social indicator data, 230 survey data, 237, 238, 244 Private/Public Ventures, 138, 254, 256, 258 Private sector, 3, 4, 10, 11, 13, 18, 122, 125, 127 Process evaluation, 140, 188, 189, 198, 202–203, 206, 208, 209, 210– 211, 262–263 Profiles of Student Life: Attitudes and Behaviors, 235–242, 252, 262 Project ALERT, 160 Project Northland, 160 Protecting Youth at Work: Health, Safety, and Development of Working Children and Adolescents in the United States, 339–340 Puberty onset, 46, 51, 53, 54, 55, 316, 335–336 Public Health Services Act, 278–279 Public opinion after-school programs, 20–21 funding to enhance, 287 Q Qualitative evaluations, 4–5, 147, 188– 189, 203, 206, 222–223, 257– 259 case studies, 16, 206, 212, 217–219 defined, 204 ethnographic/anthropological, 68, 87, 88, 97, 123–124, 206, 210–211, 257, 300, 320, 325–326

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Community Programs to Promote Youth Development Quantum Opportunities, 12, 161, 173, 184–186, 190 Quasi-experimental studies, 147, 167, 174–175, 178, 194, 204, 213– 214, 221, 227, 309, 311 defined, 205 R Race/ethnicity, 23, 27, 90, 303, 338 see also Black persons; Hispanics; Multiculturalism; White persons alcohol abuse, 27 American Indians, 79, 97, 105–106, 128, 144, 272, 280 belongingness, 97–99, 132 bilingual education, 276–277 discrimination, 5 efficacy and mastery, 105–106 funding of programs, 268 guns, 28 identity, 8 immigrants, 79, 111, 336–337 model program evaluations, 188 obesity, 75 parents, 111–112 psychological and emotional development, 79, 80–81 puberty onset, 52–54 single parents, 28 special programs, 3, 29 staffing of programs, 131 Racism, 48, 49, 55, 80–81, 97, 165, 338 parental support, 95, 111–112 Reading, 29, 127, 135, 282 Recreation, 3, 127, 135, 220, 274, 303 see also Sports and athletics Reducing the Risk, 161 Religious/spiritual factors and programs, 3, 7, 72, 75, 127, 128, 135, 142–143, 303 belongingness, 98–99, 132 ceremonies, 126, 143–145 funding, 280, 283 meta-analyses of prevention programs, 154, 176 norms, 101 technical support, 293 Research methodology, see Methodological issues Research recommendations, 12–13, 115, 305–307 Responding in Peaceful and Positive Ways, 162 Risk factors, general, 5, 38, 84, 116, 118, 127, 139, 168, 281, 298–299, 339, 340 see also specific risk factors (e.g., Alcohol and drug abuse) belongingness and, 97 decision making by adolescents, 46–47, 335 immigrants, 337 neighborhoods, 22, 29, 184–186 Risks and Opportunities: Synthesis of Studies on Adolescence, 340 Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 285 Rural areas, 2, 126, 133, 272, 299 S Safe and Drug-Free Schools and Communities Act, 277 SafeFutures, 276 Safety and security, 1, 7, 9, 43, 70, 89–91, 113, 117, 129–130, 301 see also Violence child abuse and neglect, 188, 238–239, 249, 278, 281, 340–341 meta-analyses of prevention programs, 151, 153, 156, 157, 161, 164, 193–194 occupational safety and health, 339– 340 survey data, 238–239, 249, 251 Save the Children, 123, 126, 131, 135 School-Based Community Centers, 140– 141 School-To-Work Programs, 277 School Transitional Environment Project, 162, 170–171

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Community Programs to Promote Youth Development Schools, 1, 2, 3, 8, 10, 33, 37, 65, 76–79, 107–109, 113–114, 137, 140– 141, 323–324, 338 see also Dropouts; Teachers administrative data, 236 belongingness, 96–97 bullying, 5, 89, 152, 170, 173 charter schools, 285–286 comprehensive evaluations, 220 decision making by adolescents, 46 discipline, 92, 153 efficacy and mastery, 104–105 funding of programs, 276–277, 278, 285–286, 289 guns in, 2, 23–24, 25, 162, 299 meta-analyses of mental health programs, 149–173 (passim), 175, 177, 180, 193 model program evaluations, 181–184, 186 multicultural curricula, 97, 108, 276– 277 parental involvement, 95, 110–112, 150–173 (passim), 240, 251, 323–324 physical education, 27 puberty onset, 54 school-to-work programs, 3, 23, 49, 273–274, 277 survey data, 236–240, 241, 243–244, 249, 250, 251 transitions, 62–64, 156, 162, 170–171, 299–300, 339 violence, 23–24, 25, 162, 237 bullying, 5, 89, 152, 170, 173 guns in, 2, 23–24, 25, 162, 299 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey, 236–240, 243–244, 252, 262 Search Institute, 30, 71, 116, 241, 292– 293 Security, see Safety and security Self-efficacy, 7, 8, 9, 32, 43, 61, 70, 75, 79, 80, 81, 84, 90, 103–106, 117, 134–135, 192 see also Mastery cultural factors, 105–106, 108 meta-analyses of prevention programs, 151, 155, 160, 161, 164, 176, 177 survey data, 240, 241–242, 248, 251 Self-esteem, 54, 58–59, 62, 72, 75, 76–77, 80, 84, 95, 96, 103, 114, 130– 131, 248 meta-analyses of prevention programs, 153, 163, 164, 179 Self-regulation, 70, 72, 74, 79, 96, 103– 104, 150, 151, 154, 159, 168, 169–170, 177, 182, 248 Sexual activity, 2, 9, 55–56, 101, 299 see also Contraception and contraceptives; Pregnancy belongingness, 97 child abuse, 188, 249 cultural pressure, 33 educational interventions, 109 funding for programs, 274, 278–279 gay/lesbian, 5, 9, 98, 99, 132–133 harassment, 5, 9 historical perspectives, 25, 26–27, 47 identity, 8, 64, 90, 99, 132 meta-analyses of prevention programs, 154, 163, 174–175, 177, 192 model program evaluations, 181–184, 188 puberty onset, 46, 51, 54, 55, 316 qualitative program evaluations, 258 school transitions, 64 survey data, 238, 241, 244, 245, 249 unstructured/unsupervised time and, 29, 30 Sexually transmitted diseases, 2, 27, 55, 238, 249, 299 AIDS/HIV, 2, 27, 192 Single-parent households, 28, 188, 239, 298–299 Smoking, 2, 27, 30, 101, 109, 299, 337– 338 litigation settlement funds, 285 meta-analyses of prevention programs, 151, 156, 157, 158, 160 survey data, 236–240, 242–243, 249, 262 tax on tobacco, 282

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Community Programs to Promote Youth Development Social Competence Program for Young Adolescents, 163 Social factors, 2, 3, 5–10 (passim), 32, 42, 48, 50, 64, 65, 87, 90, 236, 248, 300, 302, 303, 306, 316, 320, 323–324, 341 see also Cultural factors; Family factors; Neighborhood factors; Parents; Peers and friends; Volunteer programs civic decision making, 127–128, 250, 287 decision making, general, 335 immigrants, 337 indicator data, 12, 68–69, 75, 82–83, 197–264, 312–314 see also Administrative data; Longitudinal studies; Surveys funding for, 198, 206 intellectual development and, 76 meta-analyses of prevention program evaluations, 150–165 (passim), 170, 172, 174, 176, 179 model program evaluations, 182, 191 norms, 8, 9, 11, 43, 53, 64, 67, 68, 77, 78–79, 81–82, 90, 91, 100–103, 112, 113, 117, 127, 133, 191, 239, 250, 301 meta-analyses of prevention programs, 153–165 (passim), 172, 176 peers, 100–101, 102–103, 133, 191, 250 school grading practices, 109 school transitions, 62–63 structured supervision, 9, 30, 90, 91– 94, 117, 130, 193–194, 238, 250, 301 parental, 5, 92–93, 96, 250 unstructured/unsupervised time, 5, 20, 28–29, 30–31, 38, 92, 299 well-being, general, 68, 69, 70, 71, 75, 81–82 Social Security Act, 278 Socioeconomic status, 29, 114–115, 116–117 see also Educational attainment; Employment; Poverty academic achievement, 26 census data, 233 comprehensive evaluations, 220 racism, 111–112 Special needs children, 3, 5, 38, 132, 220, 299 Sports and athletics, 3, 19, 32, 53, 58, 59, 93, 95, 101–102, 107, 109–110, 127, 133, 135, 303 adventure programs, 179 gender factors, 101–102, 109 survey data, 237, 240, 241, 251 State-level studies and programs, 253–264 funding, 20, 139, 252, 270, 274, 278, 280–286, 293, 294–295, 296 block grants, 3, 273, 275, 276, 277–278, 279, 280 Medicaid, 279 United Way, 269–270 surveys, 234–244, 262, 312 Student Survey of Risk and Protective Factors, and Prevalence of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drug Use, 236–241, 242–243, 262 Substance abuse, see Alcohol and drug abuse Suicide, 27, 153, 236, 249 Summative evaluations, see Outcome assessment Summer programs, 127, 163, 165, 270, 274, 282, 286 Summer Training and Education Program (STEP), 163 Surveys, 12, 18, 30, 109, 115, 121, 124, 125, 126, 131–132, 134, 137, 141, 204, 229, 230, 232, 233, 234–252, 262 see also Longitudinal studies alcohol and drug abuse, 236–240, 241, 242–243, 244, 245, 249, 262 cognitive factors, 236, 244, 246–247, 248 costs of, 232, 245, 246, 252 crime, 237, 238, 239, 249 cultural factors, 235, 241, 248 local, 262, 312

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Community Programs to Promote Youth Development nutrition, 237, 244, 249 parents, 240, 248, 250, 251 physical activity, 237, 244, 249 pregnancy, 237, 238, 244 program implementation, 255–256 public opinion, 20–21, 287 safety and security, 238–239, 249, 251 schools, 236–240, 241, 243–244, 249, 250, 251 self-efficacy, 240, 241–242, 248, 251 sexual activity, 238, 241, 244, 245, 249 smoking, 236–240, 242–243, 249, 262 sports and athletics, 237, 240, 241, 251 state-level, 234–244, 262, 312 urban areas, 236–240, 243–245, 252, 262 T Taxation property, 284 tobacco, 282 Teachers, 338 after-school programs, opinion of, 20– 21 discipline by, 92 efficacy and mattering, student sense of, 104–105, 108–109 meta-analyses of prevention programs, 156, 159, 162, 163, 168–169 motivational support by, 95, 97 parent-teacher meetings, 240 school transition role, 162, 170–171 Technical assistance, 228–264, 284–285, 291–294, 312, 313 data collection, 17 foundations, 10, 136–137 Internet-based, 18 Teen Incentives Program, 163 Teen Outreach Program, 12, 181–184, 186, 307 Teen REACH program, 274 Television, 28, 31, 101, 236, 244 Temporary Assistance for Needy Families, 273–274, 281–282 Theoretical issues, 15–16, 21–22, 38, 42– 43, 47, 49–50, 87–88, 300, 311, 315–327 see also Methodological issues cognition, 57 comprehensive evaluation, 207–208, 211, 216–217, 220, 221, 222, 225, 226, 227, 310 demonstration programs, 15, 226, 311 emotional factors, 70, 37, 74–75 ethnic identity and belongingness, 99 mastery, 8, 47, 70 model program evaluations, 181, 186 peer interactions, 59 school transitions, 62–64 social indicator data, 202 social learning, 166 supportive relationships, 94 well-being, general, 68–72 Time factors, 28–29, 225, 231, 235 experimental evaluations, 219, 310 fundraising, 269 length of adolescence, 2, 22 mental health programs, 149, 150–165 (passim), 167, 168 meta-analyses of prevention program evaluations, 149–172 (passim), 179, 180 model program evaluations, 183, 185 parent-child relations, 61 positive use of time, 71 program activities, time spent in, 124, 149–172 (passim), 179, 180, 183, 185, 211–212, 255 qualitative evaluations, 259 television, 28, 31, 236, 244 unsupervised/unstructured, 5, 20, 28– 29, 30–31, 38, 299 Time-series designs, 214–216, 221 Tobacco use, see Smoking Tutoring, 57, 64, 77, 109, 121, 127, 135 peer, 109, 161, 164, 165, 185 21st Century Learning Centers, 20, 31, 270–271, 280, 281–282, 287, 288, 295

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Community Programs to Promote Youth Development U Understanding Child Abuse and Neglect, 340 United Way, 269–270, 279 Urban areas, 2, 3, 23, 26, 133, 135, 142– 143, 255, 260–261, 299 alternative schools, 286 funding for programs, 272, 281–282, 283–284, 287, 288–291, 294 Save the Children, 126 survey data, 236–240, 243–245, 252, 262 technical assistance, 292–293 volunteer community service, 121 Big Brothers/Big Sisters, 12, 95–96, 132, 151, 170–171, 173, 187– 189, 190–191, 220, 307 Urban Health Initiative, 285 Urban Institute, 30 V Valued Youth Partnership, 164 Values in Action, 262 Violence, 27–28, 79, 89–91, 339 see also Crime; Guns; Safety and security child abuse and neglect, 188, 238–239, 249, 278, 281, 340–341 gangs, 23–24, 29, 32, 33, 45, 55, 59, 82, 89, 91, 130, 239, 250, 275 homicide, 27–28 media depictions of, 1–2, 23, 101, 297 meta-analyses of program evaluations, 148, 151, 152, 162, 170, 172– 174, 177 norms, 101, 103 puberty onset, 51 schools, 23–24, 25, 162, 237 bullying, 5, 89, 152, 170, 173 guns in, 2, 23–24, 25, 162, 299 suicide, 27, 153, 236, 249 survey data, 237, 238–239, 241, 244, 249, 250 Violence in Families: Assessing Prevention and Treatment Programs, 340– 341 Vital statistics, 229, 230, 232, 233, 261– 262, 312 Volunteer programs, 2, 3, 8, 30, 33, 36, 121, 127, 135, 240, 272, 291 adults, 32 Big Brothers/Big Sisters, 12, 95–96, 132, 151, 170–171, 173, 187– 189, 190–191, 220, 307 decision making by adolescents, 46 historical perspectives, 25 meta-analyses of prevention programs, 150, 154, 161, 164 model program evaluations, 182, 185, 187–189 tax to fund programs, 284 Volunteers in Service to America (VISTA), 273 W Well-being, general, 2, 6, 38, 42, 43, 66– 85, 266, 298–299, 300, 303 see also Health status; Mental health and illness cognitive factors, 73, 74, 76–79 decision making, 74, 76 experimental studies, 69, 82, 83 historical perspectives, 2, 25, 70, 71, 72 measurement of, 67–70, 228, 231, 259, 261 social factors, 68, 69, 70, 71, 75, 81– 82 White persons, 318 alcohol and drug abuse, 27 model program evaluations, 188 puberty onset, 53–54 smoking, 27 suicide, 27 survey data, 235 William T.Grant Foundation, 287–288 Women, see Gender factors

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Community Programs to Promote Youth Development Woodrock Youth Development Project, 165 Workforce Investment Act, 272–273 World Wide Web, see Internet Y Younger Americans Act, 127, 279–280 Youth Corps, 274 Youth Development and Neighborhood Influences: Challenges and Opportunities, 341 Youth Development Block Grants, 279 Youth Development Mobilization Initiative, 260 Youth Incentive Entitlement Projects, 175 Youth National Outcome Work Groups, 245, 259 Youth Opportunity Grants, 273 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey, 236–240, 243–244, 252, 262