TABLE ES-1 Features of Positive Developmental Settings



Opposite Poles

Physical and Psychological Safety

Safe and health-promoting facilities; practice that increases safe peer group interaction and decreases unsafe or confrontational peer interactions.

Physical and health dangers; fear; feeling of insecurity, sexual and physical harassment; and verbal abuse.

Appropriate Structure

Limit setting; clear and consistent rules and expectations; firm-enough control; continuity and predictability; clear boundaries; and age-appropriate monitoring.

Chaotic; disorganized; laissez-faire; rigid; overcontrolled; and autocratic.

Supportive Relationships

Warmth; closeness; connectedness; good communication; caring; support; guidance; secure attachment; and responsiveness.

Cold; distant; overcontrolling; ambiguous support; untrustworthy; focused on winning; inattentive; unresponsive; and rejecting.

Opportunities to Belong

Opportunities for meaningful inclusion, regardless of one’s gender, ethnicity, sexual orientation, or disabilities; social inclusion, social engagement and integration; opportunities for sociocultural identity formation; and support for cultural and bicultural competence.

Exclusion; marginalization; and intergroup conflict.

Positive Social Norms

Rules of behavior; expectations; injunctions; ways of doing things; values and morals; and obligations for service.

Normlessness; anomie; laissez-faire practices; antisocial and amoral norms; norms that encourage violence; reckless behavior; consumerism; poor health practices; and conformity.

Support for Efficacy and Mattering

Youth-based; empowerment practices that support autonomy; making a real difference in one’s community; and being taken seriously. Practices that include enabling; responsibility granting; and meaningful challenge. Practices that focus on improvement rather than on relative current performance levels.

Unchallenging; overcontrolling; disempowering; and disabling. Practices that undermine motivation and desire to learn, such as excessive focus on current relativeperformance level rather than improvement.

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