The Framework questions (see Figure 3–3) offer guidance in studying the influence of standards on teacher preparation, certification, and ongoing professional development by raising questions such as these:

  • How has the teacher development component of the education system responded to the introduction of nationally developed standards?

  • How are the standards being received and interpreted by higher education institutions in redesigning their teacher preparation and inservice programs, by state agencies in determining criteria for teacher licensure, and by schools and districts in hiring teachers and providing for their inservice learning?

  • What actions regarding allocations of time and resources have been taken by various components of the system to motivate and support needed professional development in relation to standards?

  • To what extent have teachers acquired more substantive knowledge of standards-based content and improved skills regarding pedagogy and collegial activity, as called for in the standards?

  • To what extent have teachers’ classroom and professional practices changed in relation to the teaching and assessment standards?

  • To what extent are all students provided with teachers who have the skills and content knowledge needed to teach the content described in the standards?

  • In summary, who has been affected and in what ways?

Studies that address such questions will enable the accumulation of evidence to formulate answers to the Framework’s two overarching questions: How has the system responded to the introduction of nationally developed standards? and What are the consequences for student learning?

The next chapter explores the third main channel of potential influence of nationally developed standards within the U.S. educa-

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