curricular materials that embody the standards’ vision, and giving direction to the various entities that contribute to the development and adoption of instructional materials. If standards are influencing the curriculum channel, state content standards would be increasingly aligned with the national content standards; standards-based K-12 programs would be coordinated systemwide; textbooks would reflect an understanding of the content in the standards; and teachers would have appropriate resources for teaching standards-based lessons.
The teacher preparation and development components within the education system provide channels through which nationally developed standards might influence how teachers learn to teach initially and throughout their careers. The policies, practices, and programs at local, state, and federal levels determine investments made in teaching prospective teachers and in molding the ways they continue to develop their skills as classroom teachers. Teachers’ subject matter and pedagogical knowledge are shaped by their initial exposure to mathematics, science, and technology content— and the ways those subjects are taught—prior to and during their formal teacher preparation program and by the requirements for certification and licensure. Teachers’ continuing professional learning may be enhanced or constrained by the setting within which they work and by the opportunities available to them.
If nationally developed standards are influencing the preparation of new teachers, states would require and postsecondary institutions would create systems that enable prospective teachers to gain the knowledge and skills needed to help students meet standards-based learning goals. Policies and fiscal investments at local, state, and federal levels would focus on re-certification criteria and ongoing professional development opportunities that align with nationally developed standards in the three subject areas. States