Comparative studies of reform-based curricula at a particular grade level can build understanding about how curriculum developers interpret the standards and how those interpretations may affect what students have opportunities to learn.



Observational studies can reveal whether— and how—technology standards are realized in classroom practice within particular kinds of school settings.



Case studies of district reform can explore the alignment of science curriculum and assessment policies with national standards and the nature and extent of district support teachers receive for teaching in standards-aligned ways.




Quasi-experimental design studies can compare teachers’ responses to standards and their students’ performance in settings with differing degrees of exposure to, and support for, standards-based practices.



Case studies of standards-based classrooms can explore whether teachers adjust instruction appropriately, with respect for students’ cultural backgrounds as well as ways of learning.



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