presentation of a chain of evidence that connects the emergence of particular education practices, policies, or learning outcomes to the influence of standards.

All U.S. youth deserve access to the best possible education in mathematics, science, and technology. In pursuit of that goal, the education community should complete a comprehensive, critical appraisal of the power and limits of nationally developed standards. That appraisal is still far from being realized. Public conversations about the worth and impact of standards in mathematics, science, and technology—or about standards-based reforms in general—will continue. The Framework offered here is intended to help the education research community contribute to that debate with reasoned voices based on evidence and sound inference.

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