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diet-induced changes in vitamin K status, were not used for establishing an EAR because of the uncertainty surrounding their true physiological significance and the lack of sufficient dose-response data.

Therefore, the AI for adults is based on reported vitamin K dietary intakes in apparently healthy population groups. In a recent paper, Booth and Suttie (1998) reviewed 11 studies in which phylloquinone intakes ranged from 61 to 210 μg/day with average intakes of approximately 80 μg/day for adults younger than 45 years and approximately 150 μg/day for adults older than 55 years (Table 5-2). NHANES III data (Appendix Table C-10) indicate that median vitamin K intakes of adults varied between 82 and 117 μg/day.

Studies have demonstrated that abnormal PIVKA-II concentrations were observed in individuals consuming 40 to 60 μg/day of vitamin K but were normal when intakes were approximately 80 μg/

TABLE 5-2 Dietary Phylloquinone Intake in Healthy Men and Women

Reference

Sex

Age (y)

Subjects

Method

Mean Intake (μg/day)

Suttie et al., 1988

Men

20–35

10

Duplicate portion

77

Jones et al., 1991

Men and women

18–55

221

Diet record

61

Booth et al., 1995

Women

41–71

362

Diet record

156

Vermeer et al., 1995

Women

60–79

80

Food frequency questionnaire

210

Bach et al., 1996

Men

20–28

9

Diet record

83

Bach et al., 1996

Men

55–75

9

Diet record

164

Booth et al., 1996b

Men and women

25–30, 40–45

1,490

Diet recall and record

71

Booth et al., 1996b

Men and women

60–65, > 70

1,216

Diet recall and record

80

Price et al., 1996

Men and women

22–54

65

Diet record

68

Booth et al., 1997b

Men and women

20–40

17

Diet record

111

Booth et al., 1997b

Men and women

60–80

17

Diet record

143

 

SOURCE: Booth and Suttie (1998).



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