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Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc
diet-induced changes in vitamin K status, were not used for establishing an EAR because of the uncertainty surrounding their true physiological significance and the lack of sufficient dose-response data.
Therefore, the AI for adults is based on reported vitamin K dietary intakes in apparently healthy population groups. In a recent paper, Booth and Suttie (1998) reviewed 11 studies in which phylloquinone intakes ranged from 61 to 210 μg/day with average intakes of approximately 80 μg/day for adults younger than 45 years and approximately 150 μg/day for adults older than 55 years (Table 5-2). NHANES III data (Appendix Table C-10) indicate that median vitamin K intakes of adults varied between 82 and 117 μg/day.
Studies have demonstrated that abnormal PIVKA-II concentrations were observed in individuals consuming 40 to 60 μg/day of vitamin K but were normal when intakes were approximately 80 μg/
TABLE 5-2 Dietary Phylloquinone Intake in Healthy Men and Women