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day, respectively (Briefel et al., 1995). The energy needs for men and women older than 70 years of age are 1,700 and 1,300 kcal/ day, respectively (Briefel et al., 1995). Although there is no method available to adjust for the underreporting of intake, it is recognized that as much as 20 percent of energy intake is underreported (Mertz et al., 1991). For this reason, the highest intake value for adults 51 through 70 years and greater than 70 years was used to set the AI for each gender. Therefore, the AI for men is 30 μg/day (2,100 × 13.4) and 20 μg/day (1,500 × 13.4) after rounding.

Research is imperative on chromium needs for this age group because of the paucity of data. Increased nutrient density is generally recommended for the elderly, and several factors suggest that the elderly might be more vulnerable to chromium depletion than younger adults. These factors include the severely negative chromium balance produced by a high fiber diet (Bunker et al., 1984), the possible impacts of medications on chromium absorption (Kamath et al., 1997; Martinez et al., 1985), the decrease with age of chromium concentrations in hair and sweat (Davies et al., 1997), and the increased prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance with aging (Harris et al., 1998).

Chromium AI Summary, Ages 51 Years and Older

AI for Men

 

51–70 years

30 μg/day of chromium

> 70 years

30 μg/day of chromium

AI for Women

 

51–70 years

20 μg/day of chromium

> 70 years

20 μg/day of chromium

Pregnancy

Method Used to Set the Adequate Intake

There are several reports that chromium is depleted throughout pregnancy and with multiple pregnancies (Hambidge, 1971; Mahalko and Bennion, 1976; Saner, 1981). Tissue analyses conducted before current instruments were available indicated that chromium is higher in tissues at birth (Schroeder et al., 1962) and declines rapidly with age. This suggests the need for deposition in the fetus from the mother. The low concentration of chromium in human milk also indicates that the infant may use stored chromium during the early



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