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TABLE S-9 Criteria and Dietary Reference Intake Values for Zinc by Life Stage Group

Life Stage Group

Criterion

0 through 6 mo

Average zinc intake from human milk

7 through 12 mo

Factorial analysis

1 through 3 y

Factorial analysis

4 through 8 y

Factorial analysis

9 through 13 y

Factorial analysis

14 through 18 y

Factorial analysis

19 through 50 y

Factorial analysis

≥ 51 y

Extrapolation of factorial data from 19 through 50 y

Pregnancy

 

14 through 18 y

Adolescent female EAR plus fetal accumulation of zinc

19 through 50 y

Adult female average requirement plus fetal accumulation of zinc

Lactation

 

14 through 18 y

Adolescent female EAR plus average amount of zinc secreted in human milk

19 through 50 y

Adult female EAR plus average amount of zinc secreted in human milk

a EAR = Estimated Average Requirement. The intake that meets the estimated nutrient needs of half of the individuals in a group.

b RDA = Recommended Dietary Allowance. The intake that meets the nutrient need of almost all (97–98 percent) of individuals in a group.

c AI = Adequate Intake. The observed average or experimentally determined intake by a defined population or subgroup that appears to sustain a defined nutritional status, such as growth rate, normal circulating nutrient values, or other functional indicators of health. The AI is used if sufficient scientific evidence is not available to derive an EAR. For healthy infants receiving human milk, the AI is the mean intake. The AI is not equivalent to an RDA.

bone metabolism. Intervention studies using different K vitamers in both physiological and pharmacological dosages have observed a decrease in urinary hydroxyproline and calcium excretion (indicating a reduction in bone loss), as well as an increase in metacarpal bone density. Additional dose response data linking vitamin K and bone health will be needed before bone health can be used as an indicator to estimate the EAR.

Diabetes Mellitus

A number of studies have demonstrated a beneficial effect of chromium on circulating glucose and insulin concentrations; however,



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