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UL for Children

 

1–3 years

1 mg/day (1,000 μg/day) of copper

4–8 years

3 mg/day (3,000 μg/day) of copper

9–13 years

5 mg/day (5,000 μg/day) of copper

UL for Adolescents

 

14–18 years

8 mg/day (8,000 μg/day) of copper

UL for Pregnancy

 

14–18 years

8 mg/day (8,000 μg/day) of copper

19–50 years

10 mg/day (10,000 μg/day) of copper

UL for Lactation

 

14–18 years

8 mg/day (8,000 μg/day) of copper

19–50 years

10 mg/day (10,000 μg/day) of copper

Special Considerations

Certain subgroups may be at increased risk of adverse effects from excess intake of copper (Joshi et al., 1987; Kishore and Prasad, 1993; Pandit and Bhave, 1996; Scheinberg and Sternlieb, 1996; Tanner, 1998). These include individuals with Wilson’s disease (homozygous), ICT, and ICC. In addition, heterozygotes for Wilson’s disease may be at increased risk of adverse effects from excess copper intake.

Intake Assessment

Based on data from NHANES III (Appendix Table C-16), the highest median intake of copper from the diet and supplements for any gender and life stage group was about 1,700 μg/day for men aged 19 through 50 years and about 1,900 μg/day for lactating women. The highest reported intake from food and supplements at the ninety-ninth percentile was 4,700 μg/day in lactating women. The next highest reported intake at the ninety-ninth percentile was 4,600 μg/day in pregnant women and men aged 51 through 70 years.

In situations where drinking water that contains copper at the present U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Maximum Contaminant Level Goal is consumed daily, an additional intake of 2,600 μg of copper in adults and 1,000 μg in 1- through 4-year-old children is possible. However, as reported by IPCS (1998), data from the EPA indicate 98 percent of flushed drinking water samples had copper levels of less than 460 μg/L. According to these values, most



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