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higher at 13.0 mg/day, there was no evidence of an effect of zinc supplementation on zinc concentration in milk.

Zinc EAR and RDA Summary, Lactation

EAR for Lactation

14–18 years

10.9 mg/day of zinc

19–30 years

10.4 mg/day of zinc

31–50 years

10.4 mg/day of zinc

The RDA for zinc is set by using a CV of 10 percent (see Chapter 1) because information is not available on the standard deviation of the requirement. The RDA is defined as equal to the EAR plus twice the CV to cover the needs of 97 to 98 percent of the individuals in the group (therefore, for zinc the RDA is 120 percent of the EAR). The calculated RDA is rounded to the nearest 1 mg.

RDA for Lactation

14–18 years

13 mg/day of zinc

19–30 years

12 mg/day of zinc

31–50 years

12 mg/day of zinc

Special Considerations

Vegetarianism

Cereals are the primary source of dietary zinc for vegetarians (Gibson, 1994). The bioavailability of zinc in vegetarian diets is reduced if the phytate content in the diet is high (Gibson, 1994), and this may result in low zinc status (Freeland-Graves et al., 1980b). Absorption of zinc from vegetarian diets is lower than from nonvegetarian diets (Hunt et al., 1998; Kies, 1988); however, relatively minor changes to the diet can improve zinc absorption (Gibson et al., 1997; Harland et al., 1988). Vegetarian diets rich in calcium may negatively affect zinc bioavailability (Ellis et al., 1987).

Zinc intake from vegetarian diets has been found to be both similar to intake from nonvegetarian diets (Alexander et al., 1994; Berglund et al., 1994; Donovan and Gibson, 1996; Johansson and Widerstrom, 1994; Kelsay et al., 1988; Levin et al., 1986; Srikumar et al., 1992) and lower than intake from nonvegetarian diets (Faber et al., 1986; Freeland-Graves et al., 1980a; Harland and Peterson, 1978; Hunt et al., 1998; Janelle and Barr, 1995). In most older adult and elderly populations, vegetarians have lower zinc intakes than non-



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