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H
Comparison of Vitamin A and Iron Intake and Biochemical Indicators from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988–1994

TABLE H-1 Mean Serum Retinol Concentrations (μg/dl) by Quartile of Dietary Vitamin A Intake of Individuals Who Were Not Taking Supplements, NHANES III (1988–1994)

Sex/Age Categorya

n

Quartile

1st

2nd

3rd

4th

M 4–8 y

950

35.6

34.5

35.2

34.4

M 9–13 y

885

39.5

40.5

41.8

39.4

M 14–18 y

698

47.8

49.7

49.9

51.4

M 19–30 y

1,210

54.0

58.2

56.1

56.8

M 31–50 y

1,520

60.7

62.6

62.5

61.7

M 51–70 y

1,035

62.6

59.7

64.2

65.4

M 71+ y

490

62.7

61.7

62.9

62.2

M Total

6,788

54.5

55.8

55.9

55.9

F 4–8 y

926

34.8

34.1

35.3

34.6

F 9–13 y

851

38.9

40.6

38.9

40.9

F 14–18 y

624

42.2

42.0

45.5

46.4

F 19–30 y

833

45.0

44.3

47.3

47.8

F 31–50 y

1,583

47.2

46.9

48.7

48.7

F 51–70 y

871

56.8

56.4

57.7

59.2

F 71+ y

524

58.4

61.5

60.0

59.6

F Total

6,212

46.9

46.9

48.3

48.9

a M = male, F = female.

SOURCE: C. Ballew and C. Gillespie, Division of Nutrition and Physical Activity, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, unpublished data.



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Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc H Comparison of Vitamin A and Iron Intake and Biochemical Indicators from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988–1994 TABLE H-1 Mean Serum Retinol Concentrations (μg/dl) by Quartile of Dietary Vitamin A Intake of Individuals Who Were Not Taking Supplements, NHANES III (1988–1994) Sex/Age Categorya n Quartile 1st 2nd 3rd 4th M 4–8 y 950 35.6 34.5 35.2 34.4 M 9–13 y 885 39.5 40.5 41.8 39.4 M 14–18 y 698 47.8 49.7 49.9 51.4 M 19–30 y 1,210 54.0 58.2 56.1 56.8 M 31–50 y 1,520 60.7 62.6 62.5 61.7 M 51–70 y 1,035 62.6 59.7 64.2 65.4 M 71+ y 490 62.7 61.7 62.9 62.2 M Total 6,788 54.5 55.8 55.9 55.9 F 4–8 y 926 34.8 34.1 35.3 34.6 F 9–13 y 851 38.9 40.6 38.9 40.9 F 14–18 y 624 42.2 42.0 45.5 46.4 F 19–30 y 833 45.0 44.3 47.3 47.8 F 31–50 y 1,583 47.2 46.9 48.7 48.7 F 51–70 y 871 56.8 56.4 57.7 59.2 F 71+ y 524 58.4 61.5 60.0 59.6 F Total 6,212 46.9 46.9 48.3 48.9 a M = male, F = female. SOURCE: C. Ballew and C. Gillespie, Division of Nutrition and Physical Activity, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, unpublished data.

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc TABLE H-2 Mean Serum Retinol Concentrations (μg/dl) by Quartile of Total Vitamin A Intake of Individuals Who Were Taking Supplements, NHANES III (1988–1994) Sex/Age Categorya n Quartile 1st 2nd 3rd 4th M 4–8 y 401 —b 33.0 35.6 35.2 M 9–13 y 159 — 33.0 45.0 41.6 M 14–18 y 71 — 52.0 53.0 53.8 M 19–30 y 227 — — 64.0 60.5 M 31–50 y 360 — — 63.3 68.4 M 51–70 y 295 — — 59.4 68.6 M 71+ y 151 — — 66.2 64.4 M Total 1,664 — 45.9 54.3 59.4 F 4–8 y 380 — 32.0 34.3 35.7 F 9–13 y 185 — — 34.2 40.8 F 14–18 y 85 — — — 46.5 F 19–30 y 202 — — 41.0 49.5 F 31–50 y 519 35.0 44.0 48.4 51.9 F 51–70 y 271 — — 53.6 60.4 F 71+ y 194 — — 59.6 63.0 F Total 1,836 35.0 36.9 44.2 51.2 a M = male, F = female. b No value could be computed, primarily due to an empty data cell or the absence of sampling strata representation. SOURCE: C. Ballew and C. Gillespie, Division of Nutrition and Physical Activity, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, unpublished data.

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc TABLE H-3 Weighted Median Serum Ferritin by Body Mass Index (BMI) Quartiles, Adult Reference Sample, NHANES III (1988–1994) BMI Quartilea Men Women 20–49 y Median 50+ y Median 20–49 y Median 50+ y Median Non-Hispanic White Quartile 1 118 138 39 77 Quartile 2 132 156 38 89 Quartile 3 132 165 48 92 Quartile 4 168 172 50 101 Regression Results, BMI (adjusted for age) Beta 4.007 3.619 1.434 2.358 p 0.0001 0.007 0.014 0.0017 Non-Hispanic Black Quartile 1 129 207 38 125 Quartile 2 143 146 51 120 Quartile 3 166 206 47 124 Quartile 4 186 191 59 150 Regression Results, BMI (adjusted for age) Beta 2.786 1.885 0.917 0.58 p 0.0048 NSb 0.03 NS Mexican American Quartile 1 90 111 30 90 Quartile 2 128 160 34 87 Quartile 3 137 169 40 93 Quartile 4 178 174 65 112 Regression Results, BMI (adjusted for age) Beta 6.852 –0.6788 3.192 1.372 p 0 NS 0 0.019 NOTE: Excludes individuals with C-reactive protein levels > 1 and values indicative of iron deficiency for transferrin saturation, erythrocyte protoporphyrin, and mean corpuscular volume. a BMI quartiles were defined using race/ethnicity-, age-, and sex-specific cutoffs. b NS = not significant.

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc TABLE H-4 Lower and Upper Quartiles of Plasma Glucose (mmol/L) and Median Serum Ferritin Levels (μg/L), NHANES III (1988–1994) Sex/Age Categorya Lower Quartile of Plasma Glucose Upper Quartile of Plasma Glucose Median Plasma Glucose (mmol/L) Median Serum Ferritin (μg/L) Median Plasma Glucose (mmol/L) Median Serum Ferritin (μg/L) M 20 to 30 y 4.66 108.4 5.57 116.2 M 31 to 50 y 4.77 147.5 5.82 177.8 M 51 to 70 y 4.87 131.2 6.57 188.6 M 71+ y 4.95 122.8 6.72 149.4 F 20 to 30 y 4.41 33.0 5.23 37.3 F 31 to 50 y 4.55 36.4 5.62 44.8 F 51 to 70 y 4.74 73.6 6.19 119.5 F 71+ y 4.90 87.8 6.37 120.0 F P/L 4.17 21.6 5.00 22.0 NOTE: The plasma glucose values used for constructing the lower and upper quartile populations were estimated using WestVarPC 2.12. Median serum ferritin values and plasma glucose values also were estimated with WestVarPC 2.12. Plasma glucose values were measured for individuals 20 years and older. Only individuals who reported fasting 4 or more hours prior to the blood draw and individuals not taking insulin were included in the analyses. Population groups included only those individuals for whom complete food intakes were reported. Females who had “blank but applicable” pregnancy and lactating status data or who responded “I don’t know” to questions on pregnancy and lactating status were excluded from all analyses. a M = male, F = female, P/L = pregnant and lactating. SOURCE: ENVIRON International Corporation, 1999.

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc TABLE H-5 Lower and Upper Quartiles of Iron Intake from Food (mg/d) and Median Levels of Serum Ferritin (μg/L): Individuals Who Do Not Report Intake of Iron Supplements, NHANES III (1988–1994) Sex/Age Categorya Lower Quartile of Iron Intake Upper Quartile of Iron Intake Median of Estimated Usual Iron Intake from Food Median of Observed Serum Ferritin Levels Median of Estimated Usual Iron Intake from Food Median of Observed Serum Ferritin Levels Both sexes, 1 to 3 y 4.6 21.0 16.3 23.5 Both sexes, 4 to 8 y 9.4 29.0 16.9 30.0 M 9 to 13 y 10.4 35.0 21.6 33.0 M 14 to 18 y 12.8 48.0 26.9 50.0 M 19 to 30 y 13.2 111.0 23.6 105.0 M 31 to 50 y 12.6 168.0 24.4 163.0 M 51 to 70 y 10.0 160.0 23.6 148.0 M 71+ y 8.3 148.0 25.1 134.0 F 9 to 13 y 10.5 29.0 16.4 31.0 F 14 to 18 y 7.8 28.0 16.5 25.0 F 19 to 30 y 9.9 33.0 15.4 31.0 F 31 to 50 y 8.4 43.0 16.9 40.0 F 51 to 70 y 7.3 102.0 17.0 93.5 F 71+ y 7.4 107.5 16.9 87.0 F P/L 10.8 32.0 21.1 28.5 All Individuals 9.2 51.0 19.6 49.0 All Individuals (+P/L) 9.2 51.0 19.6 49.0 NOTE: The iron intakes used for constructing the lower and upper quartiles were estimated using the Iowa State University method. Computations of the medians were completed with the C-SIDE program. Children fed human milk and females who had “blank but applicable” pregnancy and lactating status data or who responded “I don’t know” to questions on pregnancy and lactating status were excluded from all analyses. a M = male, F = female, P/L = pregnant and lactating. SOURCE: ENVIRON International Corporation and Iowa State University Department of Statistics, 1999.