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population distribution at risk of, 79-80

thresholds, 65-66

Aging.

See also Adults (51+ years);

Life-stage groups;

individual life stages

and absorption of nutrients, 40, 86, 146, 474

and adverse effects of nutrients, 508

and bone mineral density, 40

and γ-carboxyglutamyl residues, 167

and chromium concentrations, 200

food consumption and, 47, 186

and glucose tolerance, 209

and iodine requirements, 274

and liver function, 69

and PIVKA-II, 168

and plasma phylloquinone, 166

and vitamin K, 166, 167, 168, 170

Albumin, 227, 260, 395, 445, 446, 454, 473, 474, 522

Alcohol consumption and alcoholism

chromium and, 215

iron and, 302, 376

serum ferritin and, 302

special considerations, 118, 145, 376-377, 480

and superoxide dismutase activity, 231, 401

vitamin A, 109, 118, 128, 133, 134-139, 145

zinc and, 475, 480

Aldehyde oxidase, 420

Alkaline phosphatase activity, 443, 453, 477, 529

Alopecia, 477, 514

Aluminum, 200

Alzheimer’s disease, 532

Amenorrhea, 372

American Academy of Pediatrics, 37, 50, 51, 97, 317

α-Amidating monooxygenase, 225

Amine oxidases, 224-225

Amino acid metabolism, 13, 44, 204, 394, 420-421, 446

Amiodarone, 259, 268

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gehrig’s disease), 225-226

Analytic epidemiological studies, 47

Anemia

adolescents, 335

arsenic and, 506

of chronic disease, 303, 304

copper deficiency, 11, 226, 227-228, 486

infants, 296-297, 298, 300, 317

iron deficiency, 12-13, 22, 44, 226, 295-299, 300, 301, 303, 305-306, 317, 352, 378, 583

macrocytic normochromic, 228

microcytic, 305

molybdenum and, 433

normocytic hypochromic, 11, 227

pregnancy and, 297-299

reproductive effects, 295, 297-298

vanadium and, 536

women, 297-299, 305

Angular stomatitis, 300

Animal studies

arsenic, 45, 503, 505-506, 507, 508

boron, 45, 510, 511-512, 514-517

carotenoids, 94

chromium, 199-200, 213, 214-215, 458

copper, 226-227, 228-229, 232, 234-235, 244, 246

dose-response assessment for ULs, 71, 75-76, 78, 436, 710, 711, 712

extrapolation of data from, 63, 71, 74, 78, 436, 518, 526, 541, 710, 711, 712

for hazard identification, 71-72, 73, 409-411, 433-434, 514-515, 524

iodine, 279, 280

iron, 108, 121, 293, 296, 300

manganese, 396, 401, 406, 409-411

methodological considerations, 45, 71, 246, 279, 517, 712

molybdenum, 421, 424, 433, 435, 436

of neurotoxicity, 409-411

nickel, 524, 525, 526

relevance of, 45, 73, 234-235, 246, 279, 410, 433

reproductive effects, 406, 434-435

uncertainties in, 63, 78, 436, 540, 710, 711

vanadium, 532, 535-537, 539-540

vitamin A, 85, 95-96, 98, 104, 105, 108, 109, 121, 126

vitamin E, 175-176

vitamin K, 172, 173, 175-176, 188

zinc, 108, 455

Antacids, 204, 311, 531

Antibiotics, 164, 165, 166

Anticoagulants, 172, 174-175



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