BOX 1–1
Select Surgeon General’s Reports Regarding Tobacco

1964

Report concluded that smoking causes cancer and other serious diseases.

1967

Report concluded that “cigarette smoking is the most important of the causes of chronic non-neoplastic bronchiopulmonary diseases in the United States.” The report also identified measures of morbidity associated with smoking.

1969

Report made solid conclusions regarding the relationship between maternal smoking and low infant birthweight. It also identified evidence of increased incidence of prematurity, spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, and neonatal death.

1972

Report associated smoking with cancers of the oral cavity and esophagus.

1973

Report studied immunological effects of tobacco and tobacco smoke, and identified carbon monoxide, nicotine, and tar as the smoke constituents most likely to produce health hazards from smoking.

1977-1978

Report focused on health effects of smoking on women, noting in particular the effects of oral contraceptives and smoking on the cardiovascular system.

1980

Report addressed women and smoking projecting that lung cancer in women will surpass breast cancer as the leading cause of cancer mortality.

1981

Report examined the health consequences of lower-tar and nicotine cigarettes.

1983

Report evaluated health consequences of smoking for cardiovascular disease, declaring cigarette smoking one of the three primary causes of coronary heart disease.

1984

Report examined the health effects of smoking on chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD). Smoking accounted for 80–90% of COLD deaths in the United States.

1986

Report concluded that involuntary smoking is a cause of disease in healthy nonsmokers.

1988

Report stated that nicotine is addicting.

1989

Report reported that cigarette smoking is a major cause of cerebrovascular diseases (stroke). The report addressed the future of nicotine addiction in light of new nicotine delivery systems test marketed in 1988 and associated smoking with cancer of the uterine cervix.

1990

Report presented data on the benefits of smoking cessation for most smoking-attributable diseases. Also, presented association of smoking with bladder and cervical cancers.

1994

Report looked at preventing tobacco use among young people including initiation, cessation, advertising influences, and school-based programing.

1998

Report examined tobacco use among U.S. racial and ethnic minority groups showing that patterns of use vary among these groups.

2000

Report analyzes approaches to reducing tobacco use and the future of tobacco control.



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