Yong LC, Brown CC, Schatzkin A, et al. 1997. Intake of vitamins E, C, and A and risk of lung cancer. The NHANES I epidemiologic followup study. First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Am J Epidemiol 146(3):231–243.

Yu MC, Ross RK, Chan KK, et al. 1995. Glutathione S-transferase M1 genotype affects aminobiphenyl-hemoglobin adduct levels in white, black and Asian smokers and nonsmokers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 4(8):861–864.

Zang EA, Wynder EL. 1992. Cumulative tar exposure. A new index for estimating lung cancer risk among cigarette smokers. Cancer 70(1):69–76.

Zang EA, Wynder EL. 1996. Differences in lung cancer risk between men and women: examination of the evidence. J Natl Cancer Inst 88(3–4):183–192.

Zaridze DG, Safaev RD, Belitsky GA, Brunnemann KD, Hoffmann D. 1991. Carcinogenic substances in Soviet tobacco products. IARC Sci Publ (105):485–488.

Zeiger E. 1987. Carcinogenicity of mutagens: predictive capability of the Salmonella mutagenesis assay for rodent carcinogenicity. Cancer Res 47(5):1287–1296.

Zeller WJ, Berger MR. 1989. Nicotine and estrogen metabolism—possible implications of smoking for growth and outcome of treatment of hormone-dependent cancer? Discussion of experimental results . J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 115(6):601–603.

Zhang YJ, Chen CJ, Lee CS, et al. 1991. Aflatoxin B1-DNA adducts and hepatitis B virus antigens in hepatocellular carcinoma and non-tumorous liver tissue. Carcinogenesis 12(12):2247–2252.

Zhang ZF, Sarkis AS, Cordon-Cardo C, et al. 1994. Tobacco smoking, occupation, and p53 nuclear overexpression in early stage bladder cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 3(1):19–24.

Zhang ZF, Shu XM, Cordon-Cardo C, et al. 1997. Cigarette smoking and chromosome 9 alterations in bladder cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 6(5):321–326.

The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001

Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement