and biotechnology companies. Dr. Crout formerly served as the director of the Bureau of Drugs at the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (1973– 1982) and as vice president of medical and scientific affairs at Boehringer Mannheim Pharmaceuticals Corporation (1984–1993). Dr. Crout was an IOM scholar-in-residence in 1994 and has served on various Institute of Medicine committees including the Committee to Study Medication Development and Research at the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) and as adviser to the Project on the Medical Use of Marijuana. He has published extensively in the area of clinical pharmacology and drug regulatory policy. Dr. Crout’s awards include the Distinguished Service Medal of the U.S. Public Health Service and the Oscar B. Hunter Award in Therapeutics from the American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

Garret FitzGerald, M.D., is chair of the Department of Pharmacology, professor of medicine and pharmacology, and director of the Center for Experimental Therapeutics at the University of Pennsylvania. Before coming to the University of Pennsylvania, Dr. FitzGerald was professor and chairman of medicine and experimental therapeutics at University College in Dublin, Ireland, and professor of medicine and pharmacology and director of the Division of Clinical Pharmacology at Vanderbilt University School of Medicine. He has received many honors and appointments for his work, including the Robinette Foundation Professor of Cardiovascular Medicine and appointment as chair of the Arterosclerosis, Thrombosis, Vascular Biology Council of the American Heart Association. Dr. FitzGerald is on the editorial board of Circulation and was formerly on the board of the Journal of Biological Chemistry. His principle area of research involves isoeicosanoids as indices of oxidant stress, pharmacology of cyclooxygenase-2 and eicosanoid receptors and pathways, and development of antithrombotic and anti-inflammatory medications.

Adi Gazdar, M.D., is professor of pathology and deputy director of the Hamon Center for Therapeutic Oncology Research at University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas. Prior to coming to Dallas, Dr. Gazdar worked at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) where he served as head of the Tumor Cell Biology Section and deputy head of the NCI-Navy Medical Oncology Branch. His research focuses on the molecular and genetic analysis of cancer, especially cancers of the lung, breast, and cervix, in order to further cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment. Dr. Gazdar manages an extensive cancer tissue specimen data bank and a collection of in vitro developed tumor cell lines. He is also developing molecular and cellular techniques for early cancer detection.

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