gender factors, 74, 172, 543, 545, 552

sexual behavior, 44–46, 50, 51

National Youth Tobacco Survey, 185–187

pregnancy, 44, 172, 543, 545, 552

prevalence of tobacco use, 1, 22, 38, 319

risk perception, 41, 68, 72, 73–74, 112, 185

sexual behavior, 44–46, 50, 51;

see also “pregnancy” supra

smokeless tobacco, 302

state laws banning sales to, 120, 125, 202, 604

Surgeon General’s reports, 24, 125, 598, 601

surveillance, 185, 192

Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 93, 185–187, 261, 320–321

Adrenal hormones, 105, 107, 108, 109, 110, 244, 245, 252, 253, 480, 549

Adult Use of Tobacco Surveys (AUTS), 69, 76

Advance, 4, 92

Advertising, 7, 8, 26, 32, 72, 86

see also Labeling;

Marketing

additives, 72, 73–74

antismoking, 125

bans on, 120, 125, 597, 602

children and adolescents, 24

cigarette-like products, 94

historical perspectives, 60–66, 72–73, 74, 76, 120, 125–126, 595, 597, 602, 603

regulation of, 7, 10, 120, 125–126, 127, 128, 141, 203, 206, 207, 208, 211, 216–221, 222, 229, 232, 595, 597, 602, 603

smokeless tobacco, 93

Aerosols, viii, 284–285

cigarette-like products, 93–94

nicotine inhalers, 97–98

African Americans, 321, 603

birthweight, 548

cancer, 406–407, 416

mentholated cigarettes, 72, 73, 86, 406–407

nicotine metabolism, 250

Age factors

see also Adolescents;

Birthweight;

Children;

Reproductive and developmental effects

addiction, 261

body weight, 569

cancer, 389, 390, 405, 410–413, 420, 421, 424, 425

cardiovascular disease, 472, 473, 474–475, 482

chronic obstructive pulmonary (COPD), 503, 508, 509–511, 513, 515

dementia, 564

dose-response relationship, 164

environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), 424, 509–511

influenza and pneumonia, 526

initiation of smoking, 73–74, 185, 191, 319, 331, 381, 395, 405, 425, 508, 543, 601

nicotine metabolism, 250

ocular disease, 566

orthopedic disease, 565

PREPs, 76, 161, 164, 319, 321, 331

reproductive and developmental effects, 547

teenage pregnancy, 44, 172, 543, 545, 552

risk assessment, general, 67, 145, 186, 321

smokeless tobacco use, 93, 302

surveillance, 185, 186, 191, 192, 194, 321

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 172

AIDS, 23, 44, 45, 48, 52, 53

Air pollutants, 44, 54, 225, 296, 333, 390, 505, 508–509, 519

occupational toxins, 33, 140, 151, 164, 166, 180, 195, 298, 329, 332, 350, 375, 377, 390, 408, 419, 420, 431, 433, 508, 599

Alcohol and drug abuse

auto accidents, 42, 43, 44, 46, 50, 56

behavioral treatments, 118–119

dementia, 564

measures of, 255, 257–266 (passim)

methadone, 42, 48, 49–50, 51, 52, 55, 114

naltrexone, 108

National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 50, 92–93, 185–187, 260, 261

oropharyngeal disease, 415–416, 418

pharmacodynamics, 253, 570

policy, 39–40, 46–50, 51, 52, 53, 55, 56, 601



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement