entific panel convened by RJR has also studied the toxicity of Eclipse compared to a reference cigarette. Among its many conclusions, this panel reported elevated acrolein, furfural, formaldehyde, and CO in the smoke from Eclipse when compared to a ultralow-tar reference cigarette (Eclipse Expert Panel, 2000). The panel went on to report a significant reduction in evidence of lower respiratory tract inflammation and tumorigenic activity in dermal studies.
Philip Morris Tobacco Company has developed and marketed a PREP with some similarities to Eclipse. It differs significantly in other ways. Preliminary technical information on Accord was publicly presented by Philip Morris scientists in a poster presentation at the Society of Toxicology in 1998. They began consumer testing in the fall of 1997 (Jones, 1998). Like Eclipse, Accord uses the lower temperature and controlled burn of the cigarette to dramatically alter the composition of smoke produced. Accord burns at 950°F, or 700°F lower than the traditional cigarette. The burning device in the Accord cigarette is powered by rechargeable batteries in a beeper-sized unit called a Puff Activated Lighter (Holzman, 1999). This unit fits special Accord cigarettes and powers a microchip that senses when the cigarettes are being drawn on. When signaled, it produces a controlled two-second burn from one of eight heating blades around the cigarette and thus delivers smoke to the user.
The company reports that Accord delivers 3 mg of tar and 0.2 mg of nicotine, similar to other Philip Morris ultralight products (Jones, 1998). Philip Morris scientists report that Accord smoke contains marked reductions in 35 of 53 potentially hazardous compounds and that Accord produces 83–98% less carbon monoxide, benzene, and nitrogen-based compounds than the cigarette smoke of comparison products (Jones, 1998). The data was stated without specifying the nature of the comparison products. Like Eclipse, Accord does not produce ash and produces little ETS (ASH, 1997). A recent study indicates that smokers who switch to Accord under experimental conditions are exposed to minimal CO and less nicotine compared to their usual brand (Buchhalter and Eissenberg, 2000).
Unlike tobacco products, medications developed to aid smoking cessation have undergone rigorous scientific and regulatory examination. Medications for the treatment of tobacco dependence came into existence in the 1970s in Europe and 1980s in the United States. The first effective medications for the treatment of nicotine dependence were nicotine replacement therapies. Currently, there are four different nicotine replacement products that have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration.