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tiple sclerosis and spinal cord disease. He is currently applying MR techniques to look at mechanisms underlying disability and recovery in MS. He has also been active in the application of outcome measures and the evaluation of rehabilitation in neurological disorders.

Stephen G. Waxman is Professor and Chair of the Department of Neurology at Yale Medical School. He also holds appointments as Professor of Neurobiology and Pharmacology at Yale University; Neurologist-in-Chief at Yale-New Haven Hospital; and Director of the Neuroscience Research Center, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, West Haven. Dr. Waxman serves as co-director of the Yale London collaboration in nervous system repair. He has served on numerous scientific advisory committees including the Advisory Boards of the American Paralysis Association, Veterans Administration, the Spinal Cord Research Foundation, the Board of Scientific Counselors of NINDS, and on the Board of Neuroscience and Behavioral Health of the IOM. Dr. Waxman has published more than 300 scientific papers, has authored two books, and has edited five books on neuroscience. He is editor of The Neuroscientist, and serves on the editorial boards of over a dozen scientific journals. Dr. Waxman was elected to the IOM in 1996, and serves on the IOM's Board on Neuroscience and Behavioral Health.

Hartmut Wekerle is Director of the Max Planck Institute for Neurobiology, and Chairman of the Biological Medical Section. He was formerly the head of the Clinical Research Unit for Multiple Sclerosis. Dr. Wekerle has served on the advisory boards of research organizations such as the European Committee for Multiple Sclerosis, the European Charcot Foundation for Multiple Sclerosis Research, the International Federation of MS Societies, the German Multiple Sclerosis Society, the Italian Multiple Sclerosis Association, the UK National MS Society, and the Robert Koch Minerva Center for Research in Autoimmune Diseases. He has served on the editorial boards of such journals as Multiple Sclerosis, Brain Pathology, European Journal of Immunology, and Journal of Autoimmunity. His research focuses on functional interactions between nervous and immune systems, including pathogenic autoimmune responses against neural, modulation of neuronal function by immune mediators, and neuronal control of immune reactivity.


Janet E. Joy is a Senior Program Officer in the Division on Neuroscience and Behavioral Health of the Institute of Medicine at the National Academies where she has been since 1994. She has served as study director for Academy reports on intellectual property rights in molecular biology, resource management, and medi-

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