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aClinical trial phases are defined at the end of this table.
bThe PhRMA (Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America) Database lists only clinical trials being conducted in private firms in the U.S. Clinical trials at academic health centers and universities are not included.
dListed as an orphan drug by FDA,
e The Database contains clinical studies sponsored primarily by the National Institutes of Health. In the future, additional studies from other Federal agencies and the pharmaceutical industry will be included.

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