Page 416


fatigue, 155
immune response, general, 42, 44, 45, 47, 263-266
oligoclonal bands, 42, 44, 46, 74, 87, 90, 164, 260, 266, 354
Biotechnology, 280, 289
see also

Stem cell therapy
private sector, 341-343
transgenic animals, 91, 93, 97, 100-104, 280, 355, 356-357
Black holes, see
T1-weighted hypointense lesions
Bladder and bowel dysfunction, ix, 124, 140-148
back pain, 165
catheterization, 143, 206
constipation, 125, 135, 140, 145, 146, 147, 154
diarrhea, 125, 135, 145, 154
measurement, 198, 199, 201, 202
relapses, 32, 34
research recommendations 143, 147
spasticity and, 142, 143, 144
treatment, 140, 142-145, 146-147, 400
as side effect, 135, 145, 154
Blood-brain barrier
clinical factors, 37, 38, 45
depression, 126
disease mechanisms, 60, 63, 67, 70, 75, 76, 245, 257-258, 263
imaging, 37, 38, 356
research recommendations, 18, 350
treatment, 278, 288
Bone marrow transplants, 294, 296-298, 313, 314, 339
see also

Stem cell therapy
Botox, 134-135
Botulism A toxin, 133, 134, 149
Bowel dysfunction, see
Bladder and bowel dysfunction
Brain, vii , ix , 26, 283-284, 285, 350, 409
see also

Alzheimer's disease;
Blood-brain barrier;
Brain stem;
Cerebellum;
Cerebral cortex;
Cerebrospinal fluid;
Cerebrum;
Imaging technology;
Parkinson's disease;
Thalamus
AMPA/kainate receptors, 243, 244, 287, 290
animal studies, 96, 103
encephalomyelitis, 7, 43, 72-73, 84-86, 99;
see also

Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis
asymptomatic MS, 35, 36
atrophy, 35, 38, 39, 122, 278, 356
banks, 316-318, 332, 339
depression, 122
employment and, 191
fatigue, 152-153, 155
hippocampus, 249, 293
laughing and crying, 119
N-acetyl aspartate, whole-brain, 39
optic neuritis, 148
self-repair mechanisms, 2, 26
spasticity, 129, 130
stroke, 115, 120-121, 130, 162, 200, 287, 291
surgery, 132, 134, 139-140, 147, 411, 412
T cells, brain-specific, 60, 70, 93, 252-253, 254, 257-258, 260-261, 263-265, 279, 280, 354, 355, 397
weakness, 130
Brain stem, 31, 34, 48, 201
evoked potentials, 47
lesions, general, 30
sexual dysfunction, 157
spasticity, 130
T1-weighted hypointense lesions, 40
weakness, 130
British Society of Rehabilitation Medicine, 217-218

C


Calcium, 45, 69, 134, 249, 253, 267, 288, 349, 407
Cambridge Multiple Sclerosis Basic Score, 202
Canaboids, see
Marijuana
Canada, 221, 339
CaP CURE, 13, 333, 339, 340, 345, 346, 365
Capsaicin, 144-145
Catheterization, 143, 206
Caucasians, 77, 82, 83-84


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