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most direct correspondence to internal loads because they are physically and biomechanically related to specific anatomical structures of the body. When external measurements cannot be obtained, quantities that describe the physical characteristics of the work are often used as indirect measures. These include (a) the loads handled, (b) the forces that must be overcome in performing a task, (c) the geometric aspects of the workplace that govern posture, (d) the characteristics of the equipment used, and (e) the environmental stressors (e.g., vibration and cold) produced by the workplace conditions or the objects handled. Alternatively, less directly correlated aspects of the work, such as production and time standards, classifications of tasks performed, and incentive systems, are sometimes used as surrogate measures to quantify the relationship between work and physical stress.

The literature contains numerous methodologies for measuring physical stress in manual work. Studies from different disciplines and research groups have concentrated on diverse external factors, workplaces, and jobs. Factors most often cited include forceful exertions, repetitive motions, sustained postures, strong vibration, and cold temperatures. Although the literature reports a great diversity of such factors, it is possible to group these methodologies into a coherent body of scientific inquiry. A conceptual framework is presented below for organizing the physical parameters in manual work.

Physical Stresses

Physical stress can be described in terms of fundamental physical quantities of kinetic, kinematic, oscillatory, and thermal energy. These basic quantities constitute the external and internal loading aspects of work and energy produced by, or acting on, the human in the workplace.

Kinetic (Force) Measurements

Force is the mechanical effort for accomplishing an action. Voluntary motions and exertions are produced when internal forces are generated from active muscle contraction in combination with passive action of the connective tissues. Muscles transmit loads through tendons, ligaments, and bone to the external environment when the body generates forces through voluntary exertions and motions. Internal forces produce torques about the joints and tension, compression, torsion, or shear within the anatomical structures of the body.

External forces act against the human body and can be produced by an external object or in reaction to the voluntary exertion of force against an external object. Force is transmitted back to the body and its internal

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