clarify and distinguish the features that make interventions effective for specific musculoskeletal disorders.
5. Although generic guidelines have been developed and successfully applied in intervention programs, no single specific design, restriction, or practice for universal application is supported by the existing scientific literature.
6. Study of the relationship between exposure to physical and psychosocial risk factors and musculoskeletal disorders has been constrained by inadequate techniques for quantitative measurement of “dose,” analogous to available measures for noise or chemicals. Existing measures are often based on self-report or qualitative metrics. New tools and research instruments are necessary to provide more reliable and valid exposure estimates; these are most important for the study of the effects, if any, at lower-level exposures and for evaluation of the possibility of interaction among different factors when more than one is present. Better measures of exposures and outcomes would permit more effective evaluation of interventions.