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    able justify a broad, coherent effort to encourage the institution or extension of ergonomic and other preventive strategies. Such strategies should be science based and evaluated in an ongoing manner.

    2. To extend the current knowledge base relating both to risk and effective interventions, the Bureau of Labor Statistics should continue to revise its current data collection and reporting system to provide more comprehensive surveillance of work-related musculoskeletal disorders.

    • The injury or illness coding system designed by the Bureau of Labor Statistics should be revised to make comparisons possible with health survey data that are based on the widely accepted ICD-9 and ICD-10 coding systems.

    • The characterization of exposures associated with musculoskeletal disorders should be refined, including enhanced quantification of risk factors. Currently, exposure is based only on characterization of sources of injury (e.g., tools, instruments, equipment) and type of event (e.g., repetitive use of tools) derived from injury narratives.

    • Information collected from each employer should contribute to specificity in denominators for jobs including job-specific demographic features in the workplace, such as age, gender, race, time on the job and occupation.

    • Injury and illness information should include, in addition to the foregoing demographic variables, other critical variables, such as event, source, nature, body part involved, time on job, and rotation schedule. Combining these with the foregoing variables would, with appropriate denominator information, allow calculation of rates rather than merely counts or proportions, as is now the case for all lost-workday events.

    • Resources should be allocated to include details on non-lost-workday injuries or illnesses (as currently provided on lost-workday injuries) to permit tracking of these events in terms of the variables now collected only for lost-workday injuries (age, gender, race, occupation, event, source, nature, body part, time on job).

    3. The National Center for Health Statistics and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health should include measures of work exposures and musculoskeletal disorder outcomes in ongoing federal surveys (e.g., the National Health Interview Surveys, the National Health and Nutritional Examinations), and NIOSH should repeat, at least decennially, the National Occupational Exposure Survey.

    • To upgrade and improve passive industry surveillance of musculoskeletal disorders and workplace exposures, the National Institute



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